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עמוד בית
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June 2018
Bat-Sheva Gottesman MD, Pnina Shitrit MD, Michal Katzir MD and Michal Chowers MD

Background: Increasing antibiotic resistance in the community results in greater use of empiric broad spectrum antibiotics for patients at hospital admission. As a measure of antibiotic stewardship it is important to identify a patient population that can receive narrow spectrum antibiotics.

Objectives: To evaluate resistance patterns of Escherichia coli bloodstream infection (BSI) from strictly community-acquired infection and the impact of recent antibiotic use on this resistance.

Methods: This single center, historical cohort study of adult patients with E. coli BSI was conducted from January 2007 to December 2011. Patients had no exposure to any healthcare facility and no chronic catheters or chronic ulcers. Data on antibiotic use during the previous 90 days was collected and relation to resistance patterns was assessed.

Results: Of the total number of patients, 267 BSI cases met the entry criteria; 153 patients (57%) had bacteria sensitive to all antibiotics. Among 189 patients with no antibiotic exposure, 61% of isolates (116) were pan-sensitive. Resistance to any antibiotic appeared in 114 patients and 12 were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. Quinolone use was the main driver of resistance to any antibiotic and to ESBL resistance patterns. In a multivariate analysis, older age (odds ratio 1.1) and quinolone use (odds ratio 7) were independently correlated to ESBL.

Conclusions: At admission, stratification by patient characteristics and recent antibiotic use can help personalize primary empirical therapy.

August 2017
Liron Hofstetter MD, Sagit Ben Zekry MD, Naama Pelz-Sinvani MD, Michael Kogan MD, Vladislav Litachevsky MD, Avi Sabbag MD and Gad Segal MD
November 2007
W. Rock, R. Colodner, B. Chazan, M. Elias and R. Raz

Background: In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, knowledge of local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common uropathogens is essential for prudent empiric therapy of community-acquired urinary tract infections.

Objectives: To define antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative uropathogens in northern Israel over a 10 year period and to compare it with antibiotic-use patterns in the same community.

Methods: We tested the susceptibility of all Gram-negative urinary isolates from outpatients at HaEmek Medical Center over the years 1995, 1999, 2002 and 2005 to common antimicrobial agents. MIC90 of Escherichia coli to some of these agents was determined and antibiotic consumption data over the years 2000–2005 (DDD/1000/day) were obtained.

Results: We observed a rise in susceptibility rates of E. coli to amoxicillin-clavulanate, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and nitrofurantoin and of other Gram-negative isolates to amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftriaxone and cephalothin. Susceptibility rates of all Gram-negative uropathogens to ciprofloxacin decreased significantly. MIC90 of E. coli for all drugs tested remained stable. There was a significant decrease in the use nitrofurantoin and TMP-SMX[1] and a significant increase in the use of ampicillin, cephalothin and ceftriaxone.

Conclusions: Antibiotic resistance patterns mostly remained unchanged or improved slightly. There was, however, a constant decrease in susceptibility of all Gram-negative uropathogens to ciprofloxacin. Antibiotic use patterns could not explain the changes seen in antibiotic susceptibility patterns.






[1] TMP-SMX = trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole


May 2005
J. Bishara, G. Livne, S. Ashkenazi, I. Levy, S. Pitlik, O. Ofir, B. Lev and Z. Samra

Background: The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing organisms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns may vary between geographic areas.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and susceptibility of ESBL[1]-producing organisms among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolated from adult and pediatric patients in two Israeli hospitals.

Methods: ESBL production was tested according to recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, using ceftazidime (30 μg) and a combination of ceftazidime/clavulanate (30/10 μg) disks with a ≥5 mm difference indicating positivity. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by the disk diffusion method according to CLSI[2] standards. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by the E-test.

Results: The prevalence of ESBL-producing organisms was significantly higher among K. pneumoniae than E. coli isolates – 32% (241/765) vs. 10% (57/547) respectively (P < 0.001), and more frequently isolated from adults than children (odds ratio 2.27 for K. pneumoniae and 12.94 for E. coli). Resistance rates for amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin among the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were 95%, 82%, 49% and 77% for K. pneumoniae, and 77%, 35%, 25% and 100% for E. coli. Two (0.8%) ESBL-producing and 4 (0.7%) ESBL-negative K. pneumoniae isolates showed intermediate susceptibility (MIC[3] 6 μg/ml) to meropenem. All isolates were sensitive to ertapenem and colistin.  

Conclusion: ESBL production among K. pneumoniae and E. coli is more prevalent in the adult population than the pediatric population and is associated with multidrug resistance.







[1] ESBL = extended spectrum β-lactamase

[2] CLSI = Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly the NCCLS)

[3] MIC = minimum inhibitory concentration





 

September 2002
Imad R. Makhoul, MD, DSc, Monica Epelman, MD, Imad Kassis, MD, Marcelo Daitzchman, MD and Polo Sujov, MD
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