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עמוד בית
Tue, 25.06.24

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January 2018
Michalle Soudack MD, Semion Plotkin MD, Aviva Ben-Shlush MD, Lisa Raviv-Zilka MD, Jeffrey M. Jacobson MD, Michael Benacon MD and Arie Augarten MD

Background: Opinions differ as to the need of a lateral radiograph for diagnosing community acquired pneumonia in children referred to the emergency department. A lateral radiograph increases the ionizing radiation burden but at the same time may improve specificity and sensitivity in this population.

Objectives: To determine the value of the frontal and lateral chest radiographs compared to frontal view stand-alone images for the management of children with suspected community acquired pneumonia seen in a pediatric emergency department.

Methods: Chest radiographs from 451 children with clinically suspected pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed. Interpretation of frontal views was compared to interpretation of combined frontal and lateral view, the latter being the gold standard.

Results: Findings consistent with bacterial pneumonia were diagnosed in 94 (20.8%) of the frontal stand-alone radiographs and in 109 (24.2%) of the combined frontal and lateral radiographs. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the frontal radiograph alone were 86.2%, 93.9%, 81.7%, and 95.5%, respectively. False positive and false negative rates were 15% and 21%, respectively, for the frontal view alone. The number of lateral radiographs needed to diagnose one community acquired pneumonia was 29.

Conclusions: The lateral chest radiograph improves the diagnosis of pediatric community acquired pneumonia to a certain degree and may prevent overtreatment with antibiotics.

September 2004
O. Efrati, D. Modan-Moses, A. Barak, Y. Boujanover, A. Augarten, A. Szeinberg, I. Levy and Y. Yahav

Background: Pulmonary disease is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in cystc fibrosis patients. New techniques such as non-invasive positive pressure ventilation have resulted in prolongation of life expectancy in CF[1] patients with end-stage lung disease.

Objectives: To determine the role of NIPPV[2] in CF patients awaiting lung transplantation.

Methods: Between 1996 and 2001 nine CF patients (5 females) with end-stage lung disease were treated with bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation in the "spontaneous" mode.

Results: The patients' mean age at initiation of BiPAP[3] was 15 years (range 13–40 years) and the mean duration of BiPAP usage was 8 months (range 3–16 months). Four patients underwent successful lung transplantation, three patients died while awaiting transplantation, and the remaining two are still on NIPPV while waiting for transplantation. Patients' body mass index increased significantly (P < 0.05) during BiPAP therapy (from 16.1 to 17.2 kg/m2). Blood pH, paCO2, and bicarbonate improved significantly (from 7.31 to 7.38, 90.8 to 67.2 mmHg, and 48.9 to 40.3 mEq/L, respectively). Pulmonary function tests were not affected by BiPAP usage. The patients experienced a significant alleviation in morning headaches and improvement in quality of sleep (P < 0.003). There were no major complications during BiPAP usage.

Conclusions: We demonstrated that long-term NIPPV can stabilize and improve physiologic parameters such as ventilation, arterial blood gases and body mass index, as well as subjective symptoms such as sleep pattern, daily activity level, and morning headaches in CF patients with end-stage lung disease. Further prospectively controlled studies are needed to evaluate the potential of BiPAP therapy and its influence on morbidity and mortality in the post-lung transplantation period.






[1] CF = cystic fibrosis

[2] NIPPV = non-invasive positive pressure ventilation

[3] BiPAP = bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation


August 2002
Wendy Chen, MSW, Ruth Balaban, MA, RN, Varda Stanger, PhD, Ra’aya Haruvi, MSW, Shmuel Zur, MD and Arie Augarten, MD
November 1999
Gideon Paret MD, Tamar Ziv MD, Arie Augarten MD, Asher Barzilai MD, Ron Ben-Abraham MD, Amir Vardi MD, Yossi Manisterski MD and Zohar Barzilay MD, FCCM

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a well-recognized condition resulting in high permeability pulmonary edema associated with a high morbidity.

Objectives: To examine a 10 year experience of predisposing factors, describe the clinical course, and assess predictors of mortality in children with this syndrome.

Methods: The medical records of all admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit over a 10 year period were evaluated to identify children with ARDS1. Patients were considered to have ARDS if they met all of the following criteria: acute onset of diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates of non-cardiac origin and severe hypoxemia defined by <200 partial pressure of oxygen during ³6 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure for a minimum of 24 hours. The medical records were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and physiologic information including PaO22 /forced expiratory O2, alveolar–arterial O2 difference, and ventilation index.

Results: We identified 39 children with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Mean age was 7.4 years (range 50 days to 16 years) and the male:female ratio was 24:15. Predisposing insults included sepsis, pneumonias, malignancy, major trauma, shock, aspiration, near drowning, burns, and envenomation. The mortality rate was 61.5%. Predictors of death included the PaO2/FIO2, ventilation index and A-aDO23 on the second day after diagnosis. Non-survivors had significantly lower PaO2/FIO2 (116±12 vs. 175±8.3, P<0.001), and higher A-aDO2 (368±28.9 vs. 228.0±15.5, P<0.001) and ventilation index (43.3±2.9 vs. 53.1±18.0, P<0.001) than survivors.

Conclusions: Local mortality outcome for ARDS is comparable to those in tertiary referral institutions in the United States and Western Europe. The PaO2/FIO2, A-aDO2 and ventilation index are valuable for predicting outcome in ARDS by the second day of conventional therapy. The development of a local risk profile may allow early application of innovative therapies in this population. 

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1ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome

2 PaO2 = partial pressure of oxygen

3A-aDO2 = alveolar–arterial O2 difference

October 1999
Arie Augarten MD, Stephen Buskin MBBCH, Dorit Lewin DVM, Ora Havatinsky MD and Joseph Laufer MD
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