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עמוד בית
Mon, 20.05.24

Reviews

IMAJ | volume 20

Journal 1, January 2018
pages: 53-57

Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Summary

Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is defined as thrombosis of the deep venous system (subclavian, axillary, brachial, ulnar, and radial veins), which drains the upper extremities. It can be caused by thoracic outlet anatomic obstruction, such as Paget–Schroetter syndrome, (primary) or by central intravenous catheters (secondary). UEDVT may be asymptomatic or present with acute severe pain and arm swelling. Clinical suspicion should be confirmed by diagnostic imaging procedures such as duplex ultrasound, computed tomography scan, or magnetic resonance imaging. UEDVT is managed by anticoagulant treatment. In addition to that, early thrombolysis aimed at preventing post-deep vein thrombosis syndrome and thoracic outlet decompression surgery should be given to patients with primary UEDVT. Anticoagulation without thrombolysis is the treatment of choice for patients with catheter-related thrombosis. Mandatory functioning catheters can remain in place with anticoagulant treatment. All other catheters should be immediately removed. The management of patients with UEDVT requires an experience multidisciplinary team comprised of internists, radiologists, hematologists, and vascular surgeons. Understanding the risk factors for the development of UEDVT, the diagnostic procedures, and the treatment modalities will improve the outcome of those patients.

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