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עמוד בית Fri, 23.08.19

September 2011


Original Articles
Y. Feldman-Idov, Y. Melamed and L. Ore

Background: Wounds of the lower extremities are a significant problem, being severe and costly to treat. Adjunctive treatment with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBOT) has proven to be a useful and cost-effective means of treating ischemic wounds, mainly in diabetic patients.

Objectives: To describe patients with ischemic wounds treated at the Rambam and Elisha Hyperbaric Medical Center and their wound improvement following HBOT.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients (N=385) treated in the center during 19982007 for ischemic non-healing wounds in the lower extremities.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.9 years (SD 13.97). Most of them were diabetic (69.6%) and male (68.8%). Half of the subjects had a wound for more than 3 months prior to undergoing pre-HBOT transcutaneous oximetry (TcPO2) testing. Most of the wounds were classified as Wagner degree 1 or 2 (39.1% and 46.2% respectively). The median number of treatments per patient was 29. Only 63.1% of patients had continuous treatments. Approximately 20% of patients experienced mild side effects. An improvement occurred in 282 patients (77.7%) following HBOT: 15.2% fully recovered, 42.7% showed a significant improvement (and were expected to heal spontaneously), and 19.8% a slight improvement.

Conclusions: HBOT can benefit the treatment of non-healing ischemic wounds (especially when aided by pretreatment TcPO2 evaluation; data not shown). Our experience shows that this procedure is safe and contributes to wound healing.

E. Lahat, E. Heyman, A. Livne, M. Goldman, M. Berkovitch and D. Zachor

Background: Several studies have suggested that iron deficiency may be related to the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) due to the role of iron in the production of dopamine and noradrenaline.

Objectives: To evaluate the status of iron deficiency in ADHD children, using ferritin levels, a reliable measure of iron storage in body tissue, as an iron status marker, and to investigate a possible correlation between ferritin levels and the diagnosis of ADHD.

Methods: The study group included 113 newly referred ADHD children aged 5–15 years (mean age 8.8 ± 2.7).

Results: Ferritin levels were below 20 ng/ml in 67 children (59%) and above 20 ng/ml in 45 (41%). There was a very low inverse statistical correlation between scores on Conners’ Rating Scale and ferritin levels, probably without clinical significance. 

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that low iron stores may be related to ADHD pathophysiology; therefore, ferritin should be included in the overall evaluation of children with ADHD.

 
 

I. Rabin, A. Kapiev, B. Chikman, Z. Halpern, N. Poluksht, I. Wassermann, J. Sandbank and A. Halevy

Background: Gastric stump cancer is often described as a tumor with a poor prognosis and low resectability rates.

Objectives: To compare the pathological characteristics of gastric stump cancer patients with those of patients with proximal gastric cancer.

Methods: This retrospective study was based on the demographic and pathological data of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and treated at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center during an 11 year period. The patients were divided into two groups: those undergoing proximal gastrectomy for proximal gastric cancer and those undergoing total gastrectomy for gastric stump cancer.

Results: Patients with gastric stump cancer were predominantly male, older (P = 0.202, not significant), and had a lower T stage with less signet-ring type histology, fewer harvested and fewer involved lymph nodes (P = 0.03, statistically significant) and less vascular/lymphatic involvement than patients with proximal gastric cancer.

Conclusions: The lower incidence of involved lymph nodes and lymphovascular invasion in gastric stump cancer as compared to proximal gastric cancer in this study may imply that the prognosis of gastric stump cancer may be better than that of proximal gastric cancer. However, to verify this assumption a study comparing patient survival is required.
 

J. Wainstein, E. Leibovitz, T. Segal and D. Gavish

Background: Control of diabetes is challenging, and frequent treatment changes are needed. 

Objective: To study the effect of the recommendation to start insulin glargine or insulin determir (long-acting insulin treatment, LAI) at discharge from hospital, on glucose control in the community setting.

Methods: Included were type II diabetes patients who were referred to and received a consultation from the hospital diabetes clinic during their hosptialization, as part of a routine consultation for diabetes management. During the visit, all patients were recommended long-acting insulin-based treatment, as inpatient treatment and at discharge. Follow-up was done by the primary physician in the community or by a community-based diabetes clinic. Glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose levels and other laboratory tests were obtained from the community health records before hospitalization and 612 months later. Medical treatment was ascertained by reviewing the actual usage of prescriptions.

Results: Eighty patients (58% males, mean age 64.1 ± 12.7 years) were included in the analysis. HbA1c levels were 10.1 ± 2.4% before admission, but improved significantly at follow-up (8.6 ± 2.2%, P < 0.001). Seventy-one percent of the patients were taking the LAI treatment and the rest were using non-LAI medications. Changes in diabetes control were similar between the LAI and non-LAI groups (HbA1c was reduced by 1.5 ± 3.2% and 1.9 ± 3.1% respectively). The rate of repeated admissions was also similar, averaging at 1.3 admissions for both groups, the minority of which were related to glucose control.

Conclusions: Insulin glargine or determir-based treatment does not show any superiority over other anti-diabetes treatment. It is our opinion that this treatment should be used as tailored therapy and should not be recommended routinely to all patients.
 

I.N. Kochin, T.A Miloh, R. Arnon, K.R. Iyer, F.J Suchy and N. Kerkar

Background: Primary liver masses in children may require intervention because of symptoms or concern about malignant transformation.

Objectives: To review the management and outcomes of benign liver masses in children. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with liver masses referred to our institution during the period 19972009.

Results: Benign liver masses were identified in 53 children. Sixteen of these children (30%) had hemangioma/infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHH) and 15 (28%) had focal nodular hyperplasia. The remainder had 6 cysts, 4 hamartomas, 3 nodular regenerative hyperplasia, 2 adenomas, 2 vascular malformations, and one each of polyarteritis nodosa, granuloma, hepatic hematoma, lymphangioma, and infarction. Median age at presentation was 6 years, and 30 (57%) were female. Masses were initially noticed on imaging studies performed for unrelated symptoms in 33 children (62%), laboratory abnormalities consistent with liver disease in 11 (21%), and palpable abdominal masses in 9 (17%). Diagnosis was made based on characteristic radiographic findings in 31 (58%), but histopathological examination was required for the remaining 22 (42%). Of the 53 children, 27 (51%) were under observation while 17 (32%) had masses resected. Medications targeting masses were used in 9 (17%) and liver transplantation was performed in 4 (8%). The only death (2%) occurred in a child with multifocal IHH unresponsive to medical management and prior to liver transplant availability.

Conclusions: IHH and focal nodular hyperplasia were the most common lesions. The majority of benign lesions were found incidentally and diagnosed radiologically. Expectant management was sufficient in most children after diagnosis, although surgical intervention including liver transplant was occasionally necessary.
 

O. Robicsek, B. Makhoul, E. Klein, B. Brenner and G. Sarig

Background: Whereas procoagulation abnormalities in acute stress are well established, little is known about the mechanism of hypercoagulation in chronic stress, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This is crucial, given the fact that chronic coagulation disturbances have been associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality due to thromboembolism and cardiovascular disorders, complications recently described in PTSD patients.

Objectives: To explore the mechanisms of hypercoagulation in chronic PTSD.

Methods: Thirty patients diagnosed with chronic PTSD were enrolled and compared with a control group matched for age, gender and ethnicity. Hypercoagulation state was evaluated by levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, prothrombin fragment F 1+2, von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen, factor VIII activity, activated protein C resistance, ProC Global assay, and tissue factor antigen. Psychiatric evaluation was performed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS).

Results: vWF antigen levels were significantly higher in patients with chronic PTSD compared with the controls (121.3 ± 42 vs. 99.7 ± 23, respectively, P = 0.034). Higher levels of vWF antigen and factor VIII activity were found in patients with severe chronic PTSD (CAPS > 80), compared to controls and patients with chronic PTSD and less severe symptoms (CAPS ≤ 80). However, no differences were observed in any other studied coagulation parameters between patients and controls.

Conclusions: Increased levels of vWF antigen and factor VIII activity were documented in severe chronic PTSD. These findings suggest that the higher risk of arterial and venous thromboembolic events in PTSD patients could be related to endothelial damage or endothelial activation.
 

A.D. Heymann, R. Gross, H. Tabenkin, B. Porter and A. Porath

Background: A crucial part of controlling blood pressure is non-pharmaceutical treatment. However, only a few studies specifically address the question of hypertensive patients’ compliance with physicians’ recommendations for a healthy lifestyle.

Objectives: To explore factors associated with hypertensive patients’ compliance with lifestyle recommendations regarding physical activity, smoking cessation and proper diet.

Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis of a representative sample of 1125 hypertensive patients in Israel's two largest health funds. Data were collected in 20022003 by telephone interviews using structured questionnaires. The response rate was 77%. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted.

Results: About half of the hypertensive patients reported doing regular exercise and adhering to a special diet; 13% were smokers. About half reported receiving counseling on smoking cessation and diet and a third on physical exercise. A quarter reported receiving explanations regarding self-measurement of blood pressure and signs of deterioration. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients’ beliefs about hypertension management, their knowledge on hypertension and its management, and physician counseling on a healthy lifestyle and self-care, have an independent effect on compliance with recommended lifestyle behaviors.

Conclusions: The low counseling rates suggest that there may be a need to improve physicians’ counseling skills so that they will be more confident and effective in delivering this service to their patients. A model based on educating both physicians and patients may contribute to improving the care of hypertensive patients.
 

Reviews
D.A. Galvan, K. Matsushima and H.L. Frankel

Ultrasonography in the intensive care unit (ICU) has become a valuable tool for expeditiously, safely and effectively diagnosing and treating a myriad of conditions commonly encountered in this setting. Most surgeons are familiar with FAST (focused assessment with sonography in trauma) and can readily grasp the fundamentals of a limited or directed ultrasonographic exam. Thus, with appropriate training and practice, surgeons can utilize this tool in visualizing, characterizing and treating life-threatening conditions in their role as intensivists in the surgical ICU (SICU). In this review we will discuss the role of ultrasonography in evaluating the acute cardiac status of a patient in the SICU as well as its use in general critical care for assessing the thoracic, abdominal and vascular systems.
 

I. Berger

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most prevalent chronic health disorders affecting school-age children. The disorder is the subject of much debate for several reasons, the major one being the diagnostic process, which in some aspects is unstructured and can be relatively easily biased. The impact of undiagnosed or misdiagnosed ADHD on the lives of many children can be severe. Therefore, it is important to understand the complexities of the diagnostic procedure in ADHD, including the cultural bias effect, the limitations of the DSM-IV-TR definitions, the effect of comorbid conditions on the diagnostic process, the gene-environment interactions, and the need to compose an objective, more accurate, and generally accepted diagnostic battery of tests. This review addresses the diagnostic difficulties of ADHD and considers some steps that would make ADHD a more easily identifiable disorder.
 

הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303