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עמוד בית
Thu, 09.12.21

August 2021


Coronavirus (COVID-19)
Shai Shemesh MD, Alex Bebin MD, Nadav Niego MD, and Tal Frenkel Rutenberg MD

Background: Hip fractures in elderly patients are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Variability in length of hospital stay (LOS) was evident in this population. The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to prompt discharge of effected patients in order to reduce contagion risk. LOS and discharge destination in COVID-19 negative patients has not been studied.

Objectives: To evaluate the LOS and discharge destination during the COVID-19 outbreak and compare it with a similar cohort in preceding years.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted comparing a total of 182 consecutive fragility hip fracture patients operated on during the first COVID-19 outbreak to patients operated on in 2 preceding years. Data regarding demographic, co-morbidities, surgical management, hospitalization, as well as surgical and medical complications were retrieved from electronic charts.

Results: During the pandemic 67 fragility hip fracture patients were admitted (COVID group); 55 and 60 patients were admitted during the same time periods in 2017 and 2018, respectively (control groups). All groups were of similar age and gender. Patients in the COVID group had significantly shorter LOS (7.2 ± 3.3 vs. 8.9 ± 4.9 days, P = 0.008) and waiting time for a rehabilitation facility (7.2 ± 3.1 vs. 9.3 ± 4.9 days, P = 0.003), but greater prevalence of delirium (17.9% vs. 7% of patients, P = 0.028). In hospital mortality did not differ among groups.

Conclusions: LOS and time to rehabilitation were significantly shorter in the COVID group. Delirium was more common in this group, possibly due to negative effects of social distancing.

Ilia Prosso MD, Nugzar Oren MD, Gilad Livshits MD, and Dror Lakstein MD

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had enormous impact on many aspects of our society, including huge medical, social, and economic challenges.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and the related movement restrictions on the incidence of hip fractures in different age groups.

Methods: This single center retrospective observational study included all patients over 60 years old admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of hip fracture during March and April 2020. Exclusion criteria were periprosthetic or pathologic fractures and multitrauma. We collected the same data on all patients with hip fractures admitted during March and April of 2018 and 2019.

Results: Mean patient age increased from 81.7 to 85.0 years. Only two of 49 patients tested positive for COVID-19. The data show a decrease of 38% in fracture load, but a striking decrease of 85% and 59% among sexagenarians and septuagenarian, respectively. There was no decrease among nonagenarians. Early mortality, both at 30 days and 90 days, was twice as common during the pandemic. However, stratification by age group demonstrated that the risks of early mortality were the same as previous years. Mean waiting time for surgery decreased from 27.5 to 18.9 hours. Patient discharge to home over a rehabilitation facility increased from 9% to 17%.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the epidemiology of hip fractures in the elderly. The incidence of fractures and age distribution were significantly different from other years. Discharge destinations were also affected. The management of hip fracture patients was not compromised.

Yaniv Steinfeld MD, Merav Ben Natan RN MBA PhD, Yaniv Yonai MD, and Yaron Berkovich MD

Background: Little is known regarding the impact of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the incidence of hip fractures among older adults

Objectives: To compare the characteristics of patients with a hip fracture following a fall during the COVID-19 pandemic year and during the preceding year.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of older patients who had undergone surgery for hip fracture repair in a major 495-bed hospital located in northern central Israel following a fall. Characteristics of patients who had been hospitalized in 2020 (pandemic year, n=136) and in 2019 (non-pandemic year, n=151) were compared.

Results: During the pandemic year, patients were less likely to have fallen in a nursing facility, to have had muscle or balance problems, and to have had a history of falls and fractures following a fall. Moreover, the average length of stay (LOS) in the hospital was shorter; however, the average time from the injury to hospitalization was longer. Patients were less likely to have acquired a postoperative infection or to have died. During the pandemic year, postoperative infection was only associated with prolonged LOS.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic may have had a positive impact on the behavior of older adults as well as on the management of hip fracture patients. However, healthcare providers should be aware of the possible reluctance to seek care during a pandemic. Moreover, further research on the impact of the change in management during COVID-19 on hip fracture survival is warranted

Nissan Amzallag MD MHA, Shai Factor MD, Ittai Shichman MD, Tomer Ben-Tov MD, and Amal Khoury MD

Background: Surgery for hip fractures within 48 hours of admission is considered standard. During the lockdown period due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, our medical staff was reduced.

Objectives: To compare the demographics, treatment pathways, and outcomes of patients with hip fractures during the COVID-19 epidemic and lockdown with the standard at routine times.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of all patients who were treated surgically for hip fracture in a tertiary center during the COVID-19 lockdown period between 01 March and 01 June 2020 and the equivalent period in 2019. Demographic characteristics, time to surgery, surgery type, hospitalization time, discharge destination, postoperative complications, and 30- and 90-day mortality rates were collected for all patients.

Results: During the COVID-19 period, 105 patients were operated due to hip fractures compared to 136 in the equivalent period with no statistical difference in demographics. The rate of surgeries within 48 hours of admission was significantly higher in the COVID-19 period (92% vs. 76%, respectively; P = 0.0006). Mean hospitalization time was significantly shorter (10 vs. 12 days, P = 0.037) with diversion of patient discharge destinations from institutional to home rehabilitation (P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the COVID-19 period and lower 90-day mortality rates (P = 0.034). No statistically significant differences in postoperative complications or 30-day mortality rates were noted.

Conclusions: During the COVID-19 epidemic, despite the limited staff and the lack of therapeutic sequence, there was no impairment in the quality of treatment and a decrease in 90-day mortality was noted.

Original Articles
Omer Or MD, Tamar Fisher Negev PharmD, Vered Hadad MD, Ran Shabtai MD, Alona Katzir MD, Yoram Wei MD, and Meir Liebergall MD

Background: Osteoporosis is a common medical condition in older ages. A devastating result of osteoporosis may be a hip fracture with up to 30% mortality rate in one year. The compliance rate of osteoporotic medication following a hip fracture is 20% in the western world.

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of the fracture liaison service (FLS) model in the orthopedic department on patient compliance following hip fracture

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with hip fracture who were involved with FLS. We collected data regarding kidney function, calcium levels, parathyroid hormone levels, and vitamin D levels at admission. We educated the patient and family, started vitamin D and calcium supplementation and recommended osteoporotic medical treatment. We phoned the patient 6–12 weeks following the fracture to ensure treatment initiation.

Results: From June 2018 to June 2019 we identified 166 patients with hip fracture who completed at least one year of follow-up. Over 75% of the patients had low vitamin D levels and 22% had low calcium levels at admission. Nine patients (5%) died at median of 109 days. Following our intervention, 161 patients (96%) were discharged with a specific osteoporotic treatment recommendation; 121 (73%) received medication for osteoporosis on average of < 3 months after surgery. We recommended on injectable medications; however, 51 (42%) were treated with oral biphsophonate.

Conclusions: FLS improved the compliance rate of osteoporotic medical treatment and should be a clinical routine in every medical center

Omer Marom MD, Eyal Yaacobi MD, Pnina Shitrit MD, Yaron Brin MD, Shimon Cohen MD, David Segal MD, and Nissim Ohana MD

Background: Proximal femoral fractures (PFF) are among the most common injuries in the elderly population treated by orthopedic surgeons. Postoperative complications, especially infections, are of great importance due to their effect on patient mortality and morbidity and healthcare costs.

Objectives: To assess the main causes for postoperative infection among PFF patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of PFF patients in our medical center between 2015 and 2017. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether there was postoperative infection during immediate hospitalization and 30 days after surgery. Factors such as time from admission to surgery, duration of surgery, and length of stay were analyzed. Groups were analyzed and compared using a t-test, chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests.

Results: Of 1276 patients, 859 (67%) underwent closed reduction internal fixation, 67 (5%) underwent total hip arthroplasty, and 350 (28%) underwent hemiarthroplasty. Of the total, 38 patients (3%) were diagnosed with postoperative infection. The demographics and co-morbidities were similar between the two study groups. The incident of infection was the highest among patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty (6%, P < 0.0001). Length of hospitalization (15 vs. 8 days, P = 0.0001) and operative time (117 vs. 77 minutes, P = 0.0001) were found to be the most significant risk factors for postoperative infection.

Conclusions: Predisposition to postoperative infections in PPF patients was associated with prolonged length of surgery and longer hospitalization. We recommend optimizing fast discharge, selecting the appropriate type of surgery, and improving surgical planning to reduce intraoperative delays and length of surgery.

Eyal Yaacobi MD, Pnina Rotman Pikielny MD, Binyamin Kish MD, Dafna Shilo Yaacobi MD, Yaron Brin MD, and Nissim Ohana MD

Background: The incidence of fragility hip fractures, intracapsular and extracapsular, has been increasing worldwide. Fracture stability is important for treatment decision-making and is related to the expected rate of complications. It is unclear whether metabolic therapy explains the increased incidence of unstable fractures.

Objectives: To investigate the possible association between treatment with bisphosphonates and the various patterns encountered with intertrochanteric hip fractures.

Methods: Patients with fragility hip fractures who were treated in our department between 2013 and 2014 were included in this study. They were classified into three groups: group 1 had a stable extracapsular fracture, group 2 had an unstable extracapsular fracture, and group 3 had an intracapsular fracture. Collated data included: osteoporosis preventive therapy and duration, fracture-type, history of previous fractures, and vitamin D levels.

Results: Of 370 patients, 87 were previously treated with bisphosphonates (18.3% prior to fracture in group 1, 38.3% in group 2, and 13.8% in group 3). Of those treated with bisphosphonates, 56.3% had an unstable fracture, 21.8% had a stable fracture, and the rest an intracapsular fracture. In contrast, only 27.9% of patients who were not treated with bisphosphonates had an unstable fracture and 30.0% had stable fractures.

Conclusions: Our findings show a higher proportion of complex and unstable fractures among patients with fragility hip-fractures who were treated with bisphosphonates than among those who did not receive this treatment. The risk for complex and unstable fracture may affect the preferred surgical treatment, its complexity, length of surgery, and rehabilitation.

Omer Or MD, Rehan Saiyed MD, Eric Marty MD, Angelique Boyer BS, Yuliya S. Jahnwar MD, Rueben Niesvizky MD, and Joseph M. Lane MD

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) affects the long bones in 25% of patients. The advent of positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners offers the possibility of both metabolic and radiographic information and may help determine fracture risk. To the best of our knowledge, no published study correlates these two factors with long bone fractures.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of PET/CT on fracture risk assessment in multiple myeloma patients.

Methods: We identified all bone marrow biopsy proven multiple myeloma patients from 1 January 2010 to 31 January 2015 at a single institution. We prospectively followed patients with long bone lesions using PET/CT scan images.

Results: We identified 119 patients (59 males/60 females) with 256 long bone lesions. Mean age at diagnosis was 58 years. The majority of lesions were in the femur (n=150, 59%) and humerus (n=84, 33%); 13 lesions in 10 patients (8%) required surgery for impending (n=4) or actual fracture (n=9). Higher median SUVmax was measured for those with cortical involvement (8.05, range 0–50.8) vs. no involvement (5.0, range 2.1–18.1). SUVmax was found to be a predictor of cortical involvement (odds ratio = 1.17, P = 0.026). No significant correlation was found between SUVmax and pain or fracture (P = 0.43).

Conclusions: Improved medical treatment resulted improvement in 8% of patients with an actual or impending fracture. The orthopedic surgeons commonly use the Mirels classification for long bone fracture prediction. Adding PET/CT imaging to study in myeloma long bone lesions did not predict fracture risk directly but suggested it indirectly by cortical erosion.

Uri Barak MD, Dimitri Sheinis MD, Eliezer Sidon MD, Shai Shemesh MD, Amir Amitai MD, and Nissim Ohana MD

Background: Cervical spinal surgery is considered safe and effective. One of the few specific complications of this procedure is C5 nerve root palsy. Expressed primarily by deltoid muscle and biceps brachii weakness, it is rare and has been related to nerve root traction or to ischemic spinal cord damage.

Objectives: To determine the clinical and epidemiological traits of C5 palsy. To determine whether C5 palsy occurs predominantly in one specific surgical approach compared to others.

Methods: A retrospective study of patients who underwent cervical spine surgery at our medical center during a consecutive 8-year period was conducted. The patient data were analyzed for demographics, diagnosis, and surgery type and approach, as well as for complications, with emphasis on the C5 nerve root palsy.

Results: The study group was comprised of 124 patients. Seven (5.6%) developed a C5 palsy following surgery. Interventions were either by anterior, by posterior or by a combined approach. Seven patients developed this complication. All of whom had myelopathy and were older males. A combined anteroposterior (5 patients) and posterior access (2 patients) were the only approaches that were associated with the C5 palsy. None of the patients who were operated via an anterior approach did develop this sequel.

Conclusions: The incidence of the C5 root palsy in our cohort reached 5.6%. Interventions performed through a combined anterior-posterior access in older myelopathic males, may carry the highest risk for this complication

Tal Frenkel Rutenberg MD, Shai Shemesh MD, Ran Rutenberg MD, Snir Heller MD, Barak Haviv MD, and Alon Burg MD

Background: Flexible flatfoot (FF) is a common foot deformity that can often consist of foot pain. Surgical treatment is designed to lengthen the lateral column.

Objectives: To resolve whether radiographic standing feet measurements of normo-plantigrade feet and FF, symptomatic or not, differ and to determine whether the lateral column is shorter.

Methods: The study comprised 72 patients (127 feet) consecutive patients, 18 years of age and older, who were divided into three groups: normal feet (56), asymptomatic FF (29), and symptomatic FF (42). All patients had a standing anterior posterior (AP) and lateral radiographs. AP images were used for the measurement of the talocalcaneal angle, talar-1st metatarsal angle, and talonavicular coverage. Lateral X-rays were used to estimate the talocalcaneal angle, talar-1st metatarsal angle, calcaneal pitch, naviculocuboid overlap, and column ratio.

Results: All three of the AP radiograph measurements differed among groups, and higher values were measured in the symptomatic FF group. Post hoc analysis found that the talonavicular coverage and the talocalcaneal angles also differed between symptomatic and asymptomatic FF patients. While some lateral measurements differed within groups, only the lateral talar-1st metatarsal angle distinguished between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. The lateral column length was not found to be shorter among FF patients, weather symptomatic or not.

Conclusions: Only the talonavicular coverage, the AP talocalcaneal, and the lateral talar-1st metatarsal angles were found to differ between asymptomatic and symptomatic FF patients. The lateral column was not found to be shorter

Yaniv Steinfeld MD, Roi Akian MD, Alexey Rovitsky MD, Natalia Puchkov MD, and Yaniv Keren MD

Background: In recent years, treatment for Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) went through radical changes: from the conservative non-weight bearing approach to a functional protocol. This functional protocol allows complete weight bearing after only 2 weeks by placing the foot in a plastic boot in tapered down equines and using interchangeable wedges under the heel. This change of approach has dramatically lowered the rate of re-rupture.

Objectives: To describe our preliminary results with this functional protocol and to assess outcome measures in the functional conservative treatment.

Methods: The study comprised 15 people who were evaluated clinically and by sonograph. We measured calf circumference, ankle joint range of motion (ROM), and single-leg heel-rise test (SLHRT). In addition, standard scoring methods (Achilles Tendon Rupture Score and Physical Activity Scale) were examined.

Results: In our cohort 14 people successfully gained SLHRT. The mean Achilles Tendon Rupture Score functional questionnaire and Physical Activity Scale physical activity questionnaire score was 85.6 of 100, and 4.7 of 6, respectively. There were no significant differences in ankle ROM compared to the uninjured limb. There was statistically significant reduction in the calf circumference and soleus muscle thickness sonographically.

Conclusions: It seems that the conservative functional treatment of ATR demonstrates good functional outcomes, with the patients returning to close to normal activity, although noted muscle wasting and weakness. This protocol presents a true alternative to surgery and should be considered for most non-insertional Achilles tendon tears

Gal Barkay MD, Amit Zabatani MD, Shay Menachem MD, Batia Yaffe MD, and Amir Arami MD

Background: Acute extremity compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency for which timely diagnosis is essential.

Objectives: To assess whether the time from the initial insult to the fasciotomy of compartment syndrome of the upper extremity affects outcomes and to examine the differences between compartment syndrome secondary to fractures and that resulting from a non-fracture etiology with regard to the time from insult to fasciotomy and the long-term patient outcomes.

Methods: Patients presented with documented fasciotomy treatment following acute upper extremity compartment syndrome and a minimum of 6 months follow-up. Patient information included demographics, cause of compartment syndrome, method of diagnosis, and outcome on follow-up.

Results: Our study was comprised of 25 patients. Fasciotomies were performed for compartment syndrome caused by fracture in 11 patients (44%), and due to insults other than fractures in 14 patients (56%). The average time to fasciotomy in patients without a fracture was 10.21 hours and 16.55 hours with a fracture. Fasciotomy performed more than 24 hours from the initial insult was not found to significantly affect long-term sequelae compared to fasciotomy performed earlier than 24 hours from the initial insult. The non-fracture group had more long-term sequelae than the fracture group (13/15 patients and 5/11 patients, respectively).

Conclusions: Most injuries treated for fasciotomy of compartment syndrome were non-fracture related, with more complications found in patients with non-fracture related injuries. Time interval from insult to fasciotomy did not affect outcome and was longer in the fracture group, suggesting longer monitoring in this group and supporting fasciotomy even with late presentation.

Review
Joshua Ovadia BSc, Nathan Khabyeh‑Hasbani BSc, Eyal Amar MD, and Ehud Rath MD

Diagnosis and treatment of posterior hip pain has increased due to advancements in clinical, anatomical, biomechanical, and related pathological understandings of the hip. Due to its complexity and close anatomical relationship with many osseous, neurovascular, and musculotendinous structures, posterior hip pain must be appropriately categorized based on its origin. Therefore, it is crucial that clinicians are able to determine whether patient complaints are of extra-articular or intra-articular nature so that they can implement the optimal treatment plan. In the current review article, we discussed posterior hip pain with an emphasis on the main differential diagnoses of deep gluteal syndrome, ischiofemoral impingement, and hamstring tear/hamstring syndrome. For the appropriate diagnosis and etiology of posterior hip pain, a thorough and conclusive clinical history is imperative. Physicians should rule out the possibility of spinal involvement by physical examination and if necessary, by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, because of the vicinity to other, non-orthopedic structures, an obstetric and gynecologic history, general surgery history, and urologic history should be obtained. Following the collection of patient history clinicians should adhere to an established and efficient order of evaluation starting with standing then to seated, supine, lateral, and prone testing. Imaging assessment of posterior hip pain begins with a standard anterior-posterior pelvic radiograph, in addition to frog-leg lateral. MRI is pivotal for assessing soft tissue-related extra-articular causes of hip in patients with posterior hip pain. Non-surgical treatment is preferred in most cases of deep gluteal syndrome, ischiofemoral impingement, pudendal nerve entrapment, and proximal hamstring pathologies. Surgical treatment is saved as a last resort option in cases of failed non-surgical treatment

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