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עמוד בית
Sat, 24.10.20

October 2020


Coronavirus (COVID-19)
Robert Yanko DMD, Valeri Klitinich DMD, Yaron Haviv DMD PhD, David Gozal MD, Doron J. Aframian DMD PhD and Andra Ratman DMD

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen that causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), is thought to be transmitted via droplets and aerosols, and was detected in saliva of infected individuals. These droplets from the upper airway may infect the inhalation sedation mask and tubing. The authors determined the adequate measures needed to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 by nitrous-oxide (N2O) system during inhalation sedation in dentistry and provided evidence on mask and tubing sterilization. Additional measures to protect patients and healthcare workers from COVID-19 that may be transmitted by the inhalation sedation system are discussed. The authors recommend minimal use of a N2O system during inhalation sedation in dentistry. In case of need, the practitioners should have more than one scavenger kit and nasal masks for each N2O/O2 mixer. Biologic barriers should be mounted between the scavenger's tubing and the central evacuation system. Strict cleansing and sterilization should be performed for all parts of the N2O system. The use a disposable scavenger system and nasal mask should be considered as a viable option

 

Keren Tzukert MD, Roy Abel MD, Irit Mor Yosef Levi MD, Ittamar Gork MD, Liron Yosha Orpaz MD PhD, Henny Azmanov MD, and Michal Dranitzki Elhalel MD MsC
Dana Elhadad MD PhD, Yotam Bronstein MD, Moshe Yana, Harel Baris MD, Uriel Levinger MD, Maurice Shapiro MD, and Nechama Sharon MD

Background: There is limited clinical information on coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients in Israel.

Objectives: To describe the characteristics, outcomes, and potential associations of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Israel.

Methods: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study of 58 consecutive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Laniado Hospital, Israel, between 14 March 2020 and 14 May 2020. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data on admission were collected and analyzed, and the association to subsequent respiratory failure was assessed.

Results: Mean age of patients was 70.7 ± 16.9 years (53% males, 47% females.); 74% had at least one co-morbidity. Most patients were of Jewish Ashkenazi descent. During hospitalization 15 patients (mean age 78.18 ± 10.35 years); 80% male, 73% Sephardi descent developed respiratory failure rates of 60% occurring on average 10.6 days following intubation. Laboratory tests at admission displayed a significant increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK) and a decrease in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) in patients who eventually developed respiratory failure (163.97 mg/L, 340.87 IU/L, 0.886 K/μl vs. 50.01 mg/L and 123.56 IU/L, 1.28 K/μl, respectively). Multivariate logistic analysis revealed an integrated parameter of CRP, CK, and ALC highly correlated with respiratory failure. Receiver operating characteristic curve revealed the area under the curve of CRP, CK, and ALC and the integrated parameter to be 0.910, 0.784, and 0.754, respectively. CRP was the strongest predictor to correlate with respiratory failure.

Conclusions: CRP, CK, and ALC levels on admission could possibly be used to detect high-risk patients prone to develop respiratory failure.

Sol Jaworowski MBBS FRANZCP, Mark Weiser MD, Cornelius Gropp MD, and Moria Malka MD
Original Articles
Naama Garmi MD, Suheil Nasrallah MD, Yacov Baram MD, Adina Katz BSc, Avishai Koren, Maya First MSc and Arnon Blum MD

Background: An association was shown between thrombocytosis and future development of several cancers.

Objectives: To investigate whether pre-treatment platelet counts correlated with clinical outcomes of patients with breast cancer.

Methods: This retrospective study included 22 patients who had been diagnosed with stage I breast cancer and were 66.8 ± 13.2 years of age. Of these, 22 with stage II were 61.6 ± 12.3 years old and 9 with stage III and IV were 64.4 ± 15.3 years old. Clinical and hematological data from the first visit to the oncology clinic were collected. The follow-up period was 12 months to 5 years.

Results: A significant difference in platelet counts was found between patients who died (187,000 ± 4000 µ/L) and those who were disease free for 5 years (248,000 ± 83,000 µ/L, P = 0.0001). A significant difference in platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio was found between patients who died and those with recurrence (192 ± 81 vs. 124 ± 71, P = 0.01). A negative correlation was found between age and lymph nodes (Ps = -0.305, P = 0.02) and staging and white blood cells count (Ps = -0.280, P = 0.04). A positive correlation was found between clinical staging and lymph nodes (Ps = 0.443, P = 0.001) and clinical staging and metastases (P = 0.308, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: Platelet counts may be a prognostic marker for breast cancer. Patients who died within 1 year had lower pre-treatment platelet count, which could represent an insidious disseminated intravascular coagulopathy cancer related consumption process.

Emil Abd El-Qader MD, Lilach Israeli-Shani MD, Gali Epstein Shochet PhD, Zamir Dovrish MD, Daniel A. King MD, David Dahan MD, Ori Wand and David Shitrit MD

Background: Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience frequent exacerbations and need to be hospitalized, resulting in an economic and social burden. Although data exist regarding reasons of frequent hospitalizations, there is no data available about the impact on the length of stay (LOS).

Objectives: To characterize the causes of prolonged hospitalizations in COPD patients.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of patients who were diagnosed and treated in the pulmonary department for severe COPD exacerbations. All patient demographic data and medical history were collected. Data regarding the disease severity were also collected (including Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] criteria, pulmonologist follow-up, prior hospitalizations, and LOS).

Results: The study comprised 200 patients, average age 69.5 ± 10.8 years, 61% males. Of these patients, 89 (45%) were hospitalized for up to 4 days, 111 (55%) for 5 days or more, and 34 (17%) for more than 7 days. Single patients had longer LOS compared with married patients (48% vs. 34%, P = 0.044). Multivariate analysis showed that the number of prior hospital admissions in the last year was a predictor of LOS (P = 0.038, odds ratio [OR] = 0.807, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 0.659–0.988), as well as the use of non-invasive respiratory support by bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) during the hospitalization (P = 0.024, OR = 4.662, 95%CI = 1.229–17.681).

Conclusions: Fewer previous hospitalizations due to COPD exacerbations and the need for non-invasive respiratory support by BiPAP were found as predictors of longer LOS.

Khalaf Kridin MD, Mouhammad Kridin MD, Howard Amital MD, Abdulla Watad MD and Mogher Khamaisi MD

Background: The reported mortality rates of patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis are highly variable worldwide. The excess mortality of patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis has not been evaluated in an Israeli population.

Objectives: To investigate the overall mortality in a large and well-established cohort of patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis as compared to the mortality expected in the matched general population in a tertiary medical center.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, the mortality of 166 patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis was compared to age- and sex-matched control subjects in the general population. All-cause standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated.

Results: Overall, 47 (28.3%) deaths were observed among patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis during a mean follow-up period of 5.8 ± 4.8 years, which was 7 times higher than in the control group (SMR 7.4, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 5.5–9.8). The SMRs were comparable in patents with polymyositis (7.7, 95%CI 4.8–12.3) and dermatomyositis (7.2, 95%CI 5.0–10.3). The 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year overall survival rates were 90.0%, 82.8%, 51.5%, and 26.1%, respectively, in patients with polymyositis, and 80.3%, 59.6%, 40.0%, and 17.1%, respectively, in patients with dermatomyositis.

Conclusions: The overall mortality among Israeli patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis is 7.4 times greater than for the general population. Although long-term mortality was comparable between patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis, patients in the former group died at a notably earlier stage.

Haim Shmuely MD, Shimon Topaz MD, Rita Berdinstein PhD, Jacob Yahav MD, and Ehud Melzer MD

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is the main determinant for Helicobacter pylori treatment failure. Regional antimicrobial susceptibility testing is essential for appropriate antibiotic selection to achieve high eradication rates.

Objectives: To assess primary and secondary H. pylori resistance in isolates recovered from Israeli naïve and treatment failures. To identify predictors of resistance.

Methods: In this retrospective study, in vitro activity of isolated H. pylori in Israel was tested against metronidazole, clarithromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin in 128 isolates: 106 from treatment failures and 22 from naïve untreated patients. The minimal inhibitory concentration values were determined according to the Etest instructions. Treatment failures previously failed at least one treatment regimen.

Results: No resistance to amoxicillin and tetracycline was detected. Resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin was high in H. pylori isolates both from treated and untreated patients: 68.9%, 68.2% for metronidazole (P = 0.95); 53.8%, 59.1% for clarithromycin (P = 0.64), respectively. Dual resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole was seen in 45.3% and 50%, respectively (P = 0.68). Resistance to levofloxacin was detected in two (1.9%) isolates from treated patients. Simultaneous resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin was seen in an isolate from a treated patient. Age was the only predictor of resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin.

Conclusion: The resistance rates to both single and dual metronidazole and clarithromycin in isolates recovered from both Israeli naïve and treated patients is high. Low resistance renders levofloxacin an attractive option for second or third line treatment. Therapeutic outcome would benefit from susceptibility testing after treatment failure.

Marc Romain MBBCh , Moshe Vysokovsky MD, Peter Vernon van-Heerden MBBCh, Ilana Stav BSc, and Sigal Sviri MD

Background: In Israel, critically ill patients are ventilated and managed in intensive care units or general wards.

Objectives: To compare the mortality rates and long-term cognitive and functional outcomes of ventilated patients who underwent tracheostomy insertion in the Medical ICU (MICU) versus those cared for in the in-patient wards.

Methods: The study comprised 170 patients who underwent percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) over an 18-month period in the MICU (n=102) and in in-patient wards (internal medicine and neurology) (n=68). Telephone interviews were conducted with living patients and/or their relatives at least 6 months after discharge from the hospital.

Results: Ward patients were 10 years older than ICU patients undergoing PDT (P = 0.003). The length of stay (LOS) in the wards was longer than in the ICU (P < 0.001), whereas the total LOS in the hospital was similar (P = 0.43). ICU mortality was lower than in the wards (P = 0.001) but hospital mortality was comparable between the two groups (P = 0.17). At 6 months follow-up more ICU patients were fully conscious, weaned from ventilation, and decannulated. More patients in the ICU group were at home and were independent or had mildly impaired activities of daily living. More patients in the ward group were residing in long-term care facilities with functional limitations.

Conclusions: MICU patients who undergo tracheostomy may have a good long-term functional and cognitive outcome. More studies are needed to further assess long-term outcomes in these patients.

Arik Toren MD, Sharon Alpern MD, Michal Berkenstadt MD, Omer Bar-Yosef MD, Elon Pras MD and Eldad Katorza MD MSC MBA

Background: Fetal ventriculomegaly is one of the more common fetal anomalies detected during prenatal screening.

Objectives: To assess the rate of genetic aberrations as the cause for ventriculomegaly in these fetuses.

Methods: A historic cohort study was conducted on 164 fetuses with sonographic diagnosis of ventriculomegaly. All cases were analyzed for karyotype and 41 cases were further analyzed by chromosomal microarray (CMA). The study group was subdivided by laterality, severity, and whether the ventriculomegaly was an isolated finding or not. Subgroups were compared and the study group was compared to a control group of 209 fetuses.

Results: Karyotype aberrations were more common among fetuses with ventriculomegaly (6.6%) compared to controls (0%, P < 0.001). CMA aberrations were more common in the non-isolated ventriculomegaly cases (24.1%) compared to controls (6.2%, P = 0.031). The rate of genetic aberrations was not associated with the degree of dilatation or laterality.

Conclusions: It is equivocal whether CMA testing should be conducted on every amniotic fluid sample taken from fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly. However, if more anomalies are detected during an anatomical survey, CMA analysis should be conducted to decrease oversights of genetic diagnoses.

Reviews
Milena Tocut MD, Hanan Vaknine MD, Paulina Potachenko MD, Sorin Elias MD, and Gisele Zandman-Goddard MD

Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare hematopoietic malignancy originating from the monocyte/macrophage bone marrow lineage. HS can occur in isolation or in association with other hematological neoplasms such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), myelodysplasia, or acute leukemia. Clinically, HS can affect lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, skin, bone marrow, and spleen as well as the central nervous system. Most cases of HS follow an aggressive clinical course, with most patients dying of progressive disease within one year of diagnosis

Images
Amal Silawy MD, Majed Odeh MD, Nina Borissovsky MD, and Gleb Slobodin MD
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