Diana Tasher MD, Eran Kopel MD, Emilia Anis MD, Zachi Grossman MD and Eli Somekh MD
Background: During 2013–2014 Israel experienced a continuous circulation of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) but with no clinical cases. WPV1 circulation was gradually terminated following a national vaccination campaign of bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) for 943,587 children < 10 years. Four cases of children with neurological manifestations that appeared following bOPV vaccinations were reported during the campaign: three of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and one of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM).
Objectives: To present an analysis of these cases, the rapid response and the transparent publication of the results of this analysis.
Methods: The clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data of these four patients were available during the analysis. In addition, data regarding the incidence of GBS and ADEM during previous years, and reported cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and the incidence of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis were collected from the Epidemiology Department of the Israel Ministry of Health.
Results: The incidence of GBS among bOPV-vaccinated children was not higher than among bOPV-unvaccinated children. For all the cases reviewed the "incubation period" from vaccination to the event was longer than expected and other more plausible causes for the neurologic manifestations were found. There is no evidence in the literature of a causal relationship between bOPV and ADEM.
Conclusions: There was no association between the bOPV vaccine and the reported neurological manifestations. We believe that our experience may assist other public health professionals when confronting a similar problem of alleged side effects during a mass medical intervention.
Nathaniel A. Cohen MD, Dan M. Livovsky MD, Shir Yaakobovitch BSc, Merav Ben Yehoyada PhD, Ronen Ben Ami MD, Amos Adler MD, Hanan Guzner-Gur MD, Eran Goldin MD, Moshe E. Santo MD, Zamir Halpern MD, Kalman Paz MD and Nitsan Maharshak MD
Background: Antibiotic treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has a high failure rate. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has proven very effective in treating these recurrences.
Objectives: To determine which method of fecal microbiota transplantation (upper or lower gastrointestinal) and which type of donor (a relative or unrelated) is superior.
Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of treatment protocols and outcomes in 22 patients with refractory or recurrent CDI who underwent FMT at two Israeli facilities. Each center used a different donor type, stool preparation and method of delivery. The Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center used unrelated fecal donors and frozen stool samples and delivered them primarily (92%) via the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Shaare Zedek Medical Center used fresh donor stool of relatives and delivered them primarily (90%) via the upper GI tract.
Results: FMT had an overall 2 month cure rate of 89%. Patients treated with FMT that was executed through the lower GI tract recovered faster from the infection (1.6 ± 1.08 vs. 2.4 ± 1 days for the upper tract, P = 0.03). The results also showed that patients who received lower GI tract FMTs were more likely to be cured of CDI (100% vs. 75% for upper tract FMTs, P = 0.16). Five patients (22%) died of CDI/FMT-unrelated causes and two (10%) died of CDI/FMT-related causes during the study period.
Conclusions: Lower GI tract FMT is a safe and effective treatment for refractory and recurrent CDI, and yields quicker results than upper GI tract FMT.
Michal M. Amitai MD, Eldad Katorza MD, Larisa Guranda MD, Sara Apter MD, Orith Portnoy MD, Yael Inbar MD, Eli Konen MD, Eyal Klang MD and Yael Eshet MD
Background: Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain pose a diagnostic challenge. Delay in diagnosis may result in significant risk to the fetus. The preferred diagnostic modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), since ultrasonography is often inconclusive, and computed tomography (CT) would expose the fetus to ionizing radiation
Objectives: To describe the process in setting up an around-the-clock MRI service for diagnosing appendicitis in pregnant women and to evaluate the contribution of abdominal MR in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting with acute abdominal pain over a 6 year period who underwent MRI studies. A workflow that involved a multidisciplinary team was developed. A modified MRI protocol adapted to pregnancy was formulated. Data regarding patients' characteristics, imaging reports and outcome were collected retrospectively.
Results: 49 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis were enrolled. Physical examination was followed by ultrasound: when positive, the patients were referred for MR scan or surgery treatment; when the ultrasound was inconclusive, MR scan was performed. In 88% of women appendicitis was ruled out and surgery was prevented. MRI diagnosed all cases with acute appendicitis and one case was inconclusive. The overall statistical performance of the study shows a negative predictive value of 100% (95%CI 91.9–100%) and positive predictive value of 83.3% (95%CI 35.9–99.6%).
Conclusions: Creation of an around-the-clock imaging service using abdominal MRI with the establishment of a workflow chart using a dedicated MR protocol is feasible. It provides a safe way to rule out appendicitis and to avoid futile surgery in pregnant women.
Yaakov Melcer MD, Noam Smorgick MD MSc, David Schneider MD, Moty Pansky MD, Reuvit Halperin MD PhD and Ido Ben-Ami MD PhD
Background: Despite the large volume of evidence on the management of retained products of conception (RPOC), there are virtually no data regarding the optimal time frame of surgical intervention in case of RPOC.
Objectives: To examine whether the time interval between spontaneous vaginal delivery or pregnancy termination and the uterine evacuation due to pathologically confirmed RPOC influences the reproductive outcome.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all the records of women who were admitted to our department due to pathologically confirmed RPOC following either spontaneous vaginal delivery or pregnancy termination between January 2000 and December 2010. Based on the median time from delivery or pregnancy termination until the operative intervention in the study group, patients were stratified into two groups: early intervention (< 3 weeks) and late intervention (> 3 weeks). Reproductive outcomes were compared between the two study groups.
Results: Reproductive outcomes were analyzed in 172 patients with pathologically confirmed RPOC. Of them, 95 (55.2%) were included in the early intervention group and 77 (44.8%) in the late intervention group. There were no significant differences in the conception rate, mean time to conception, and the occurrence rate of a new infertility problem in women with early surgical intervention compared to those with late surgical intervention (P > 0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the groups in the pregnancy outcomes following RPOC.
Conclusions: Early surgical intervention in women with pathologically confirmed RPOC following spontaneous vaginal delivery or pregnancy termination yields the same reproductive outcomes as late surgical intervention.
Osnat Halshtok Neiman MD, Zippy Erlich PhD, Eitan Friedman M PhD, Arie Rundstein MD, Anat Shalmon MD, Yael Servadio MD and Miri Sklair Levy MD
Background: Automated breast volumetric sonography (ABVS) is a new technology with various possible applications.
Objectives: To compare ABVS and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the surveillance of women with BRCA1/2 gene mutation carriers.
Methods: We conducted a prospective study in Jewish female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who underwent breast MRI and ABVS. The results of both exams performed 6 months apart or less, and relevant clinical data, were reviewed. The BIRADS results were divided into three subgroups according to subsequent expected management: BIRADS 1-2 (normal study), BIRADS 3 (probably benign finding), and BIRADS 4 and 5 (suspicious findings). BIRADS 0 and 6 scores were excluded from the study. Distribution of ABVS and MRI BIRADS scores were compared using McNemar's test, and concordance was calculated using the Cohen kappa test.
Results: Overall, 68 women, 40 BRCA1 and 28 BRCA2 mutation carriers, age range 26–69 (mean 44.55 ± 12.1 years), underwent 79 paired ABVS and MRI examinations. McNemar's test calculations showed no significant difference between MRI and ABVS BIRADS score distribution. Cohen’s kappa test resulted in k = 0.158, an agreement that can be described as only "slight agreement" between both modalities. Of 14 discordant cases there was one cancer, revealed by MRI and not by ABVS performed 6 months prior to MRI.
Conclusions: ABVS showed slight agreement with MRI in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. These preliminary results on a small group of healthy high risk patients suggest that the diagnostic abilities of ABVS are inferior to MRI. Further studies encompassing larger groups are needed.
Ofir Har-Noy MD, Bun Kim MD, Rivi Haiat, Tal Engel MD, Bella Ungar MD, Rami Eliakim MD, Won Ho Kim MD, Jae Hee Cheon MD PhD and Shomron Ben-Horin MD
Background: Although 5-amino-salycilic acids (5-ASA) are often used with corticosteroid treatment in moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis, the value of continuing/initiating 5-ASA in this clinical setting has not been explored.
Objectives: To investigate the impact of a combination 5-ASA+corticosteroid therapy on the outcome of hospitalized patients with acute moderate-severe ulcerative colitis.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients hospitalized with moderate-severe ulcerative colitis in two centers, Israel and South Korea. Patients were classified into those who received 5-ASA and corticosteroids and those who received corticosteroids alone. Analysis was performed for each hospitalization event. The primary outcome was the rate of treatment failure defined as the need for salvage therapy (cyclosporin-A/infliximab/colectomy). The secondary outcomes were 30 days re-admission rates, in-hospital mortality rates, time to improvement, and length of hospitalization.
Results: We analyzed 209 hospitalization events: 151 patients (72%) received 5-ASA+corticosteroids and 58 (28%) corticosteroids alone. On univariate analysis the combination therapy group had a lower risk for treatment failure (11% vs. 31%, odds ratio 0.28, 95% confidence interval 0.13–0.59, P = 0.001). However, this difference disappeared on multivariate analysis, which showed pre-admission oral corticosteroid treatment to be the most significant factor associated with the need for salvage therapy.
Conclusions: A signal for possible benefit of a combination 5-ASA and corticosteroids therapy was found, but was confounded by the impact of pre-admission corticosteroid treatment.