* Israel Glaucoma Screening Group 2009-2010 (in alphabetical order):
Applebaum E, Arodi A, Avidar A, Barkana Y, Beiran I, Bracha Z, Burgansky Z, Cotlear D, Dafna O, Drori L, ElNaddaf H, Epstein E, Garzozi H, Gawi H, Geffen N, Glovinsky Y, Hadayer A, Jubran R, Kalev-Landoy M, Kaniezer B, Kratz A, Kurtz S, Matanes M, Mazover A, Mazzawi N, Naveh L, Nesher R, Neuman H, Pedut T, Pikel Y, Rachmiel R, Rath E, Robinson A, Segev E, Shemesh G, Shoham N, Silverston B, Tam G, Tessler Z, Tiosano B, Vidan A, Vishinevski I, Zalish M, Zarfati D, Zorani Y.
Background: Early detection of glaucoma enables early initiation of treatment. Screening populations at risk is likely to help achieve this goal.
Objectives: To increase public awareness regarding early detection of glaucoma, and estimate the prevalence of increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic disk cupping in the screened population.
Methods: A public awareness campaign was carried out in Israel during the 2009 and 2010 World Glaucoma Week, culminating each year in a one-day, free-of-charge screening of individuals in 13 outreach public locations. Screening was performed by 45 ophthalmologists and included a brief medical history, slit-lamp exam with measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP), and evaluation of cup/disk ratio.
Results: A total of 2560 individuals were screened; the mean age was 59 ± 13 years. IOP ≥ 21 mmHg was found in 4.8%, and 12.3% had cupping ≥ 0.5. IOP ≥ 21 mmHg together with cupping ≥ 0.5 were present in 1.4% and this rate increased with age: 3.7% of cases in the age group ≥ 70 years compared to 1% and 0.6% in the age groups 50–69 and < 50 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Likewise, the prevalence of cupping ≥ 0.7 and of IOP ≥ 24 mmHg increased significantly with age. The prevalence of IOP ≥ 21 mmHg increased in cases with a family history of glaucoma in first-degree relatives (10.5% compared to 3.9%, P < 0.001). The prevalence of IOP ≥ 21 mmHg was also increased in diabetic patients (8.3% vs. 4.3% in non-diabetics, P = 0.002). Further ophthalmologic evaluation was recommended to 13% of the screened individuals.
Conclusions: Outreach screening for glaucoma is a valuable tool for detecting glaucoma, pre-perimetric glaucoma, or ocular hypertension in a meaningful number of previously undiagnosed cases. Yet, cost-effectiveness issues should also be considered. The yield of such screening increases with age and seems to be most advantageous in cases with diabetes or a family history of glaucoma.