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עמוד בית Mon, 19.08.19

October 2010


Focus
T. Bergman-Levy, A. Bleich, M. Kotler and Y. Melamed

The courts have recently become increasingly involved in the administration of compulsory psychiatric services in Israel. Data reveal a gradual increase in the rate of court-ordered hospitalizations according to Section 15 of the Law for the Treatment of the Mentally Ill. This paper examines the implications of this trend, particularly the issues of security and safety in psychiatric hospitalization. We present highlights from extensive British experience, focusing on the implications on forensic psychiatry in Israel. We review the development of the hierarchy of security in the British psychiatric services, beginning in the early 1970s with the establishment of the Butler Committee that determined a hierarchy of three levels of security for the treatment of patients, culminating with the establishment of principles for the operation of medium security units in Britain (Read Committee, 1991). These developments were the basis for the forensic psychiatric services in Britain. We discuss the relevance of the British experience to the situation in Israel while examining the current status of mental health facilities in Israel. In our opinion, a safe and suitable environment is a necessary condition for a treatment setting. The establishment of medium security units or forensic psychiatry departments within a mental health facility will enable the concentration and classification of court-ordered admissions and will enable systemic flexibility and capacity for better treatment, commensurate with patient needs.

Original Articles
R.O. Escarcega, J. Carlos Perez-Alva, M. Jimenez-Hernandez, C. Mendoza-Pinto, R. Sanchez Perez, R. Sanchez Porras and M. Garcia-Carrasco

Background: On-site cardiac surgery is not widely available in developing countries despite a high prevalence of coronary artery disease.

Objectives: To analyze the safety, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of transradial percutaneous coronary intervention without on-site cardiac surgery in a community hospital in a developing country.

Methods: Of the 174 patients who underwent PCI[1] for the first time in our center, we analyzed two groups: stable coronary disease and acute myocardial infarction. The primary endpoint was the rate of complications during the first 24 hours after PCI. We also analyzed the length of hospital stay and the rate of hospital readmission in the first week after PCI, and compared costs between the radial and femoral approaches.

Results: The study group comprised 131 patients with stable coronary disease and 43 with acute MI[2]. Among the patients with stable coronary disease 8 (6.1%) had pulse loss, 12 (9.16%) had on-site hematoma, and 3 (2.29%) had bleeding at the site of the puncture. Among the patients with acute MI, 3 (6.98) had pulse loss and 5 (11.63%) had bleeding at the site of the puncture. There were no cases of atriovenous fistula or nerve damage. In the stable coronary disease group, 130 patients (99%) were discharged on the same day (2.4 ± 2 hours). In the acute MI group, the length of stay was 6.6 ± 2.5 days with at least 24 hours in the intensive care unit. There were no hospital readmissions in the first week after the procedure. The total cost, which includes equipment related to the specific approach and recovery room stay, was significantly lower with the radial approach compared to the femoral approach (US$ 500 saving per intervention).

Conclusions: The transradial approach was safe and feasible in a community hospital in a developing country without on-site cardiac surgery backup. The radial artery approach is clearly more cost effective than the femoral approach.






[1] PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention



[2] MI = myocardial infarction


Y. Ben Yehuda, S. Attar-Schwartz, A. Ziv, M. Jedwab and R. Benbenishty

Background: For health professionals who interact professionally with children, adequate awareness and training regarding the clinical indicators of child abuse and neglect, as well as subsequent reporting and procedures, are essential.

Objectives: To study Israeli health professionals’ experiences with identification and reporting of suspected cases of child abuse and neglect, and their perceived training needs in this area.

Methods: The study group was a convenience sample comprising 95 Israeli health professionals (physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, etc.) attending workshops on medical aspects at a national conference on child abuse and neglect. The study was a cross-sectional survey. The health professionals were asked to complete an anonymous structured questionnaire on their experience with child abuse and neglect and on their training needs.

Results: The participants in the survey had relatively high levels of involvement with child protection. Nevertheless, they strongly expressed their need for training, especially in mastering practice skills. The need for training was greater for professionals with less experience in child protection, and there were different needs according to profession.

Conclusions: Despite their prior extensive experience in dealing with child abuse and neglect, most of the health professionals participating in the conference reported the need for training in various areas.

Y. Linhart, O. Romano-Zelekha and T. Shohat

Background: Data regarding the validity of self-reported weight and height in adolescents are conflicting.

Objectives: To evaluate the validity of self-reported weight and height among 13–14 year old schoolchildren. 

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 517 schoolchildren aged 13–14 years and compared self-reported and measured weight and height by gender, population group, parental education and crowdedness.

Results: Females under-reported their weight on average by 0.79 ± 5.46 kg (P = 0.03), resulting in underestimation of the body mass index with borderline significance (mean difference 0.28 ± 2.26 kg/m², P = 0.06). Males over-reported their height on average by 0.75 ± 5.81 cm (P = 0.03). Children from less crowded homes (≤ 1 person per room) overestimated their height more than children from more crowded homes, resulting in a significant underestimation of BMI[1] (mean difference between reported BMI and measured values was 0.30 ± 2.36 kg/m², P = 0.04). Measured BMI was a significant predictor of the difference between self-reported and measured BMI, adjusted for gender, population group, parents' education, and crowdedness (β = -0.3, P < 0.0001). As a result of this reporting bias, only 54.9% of children with overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) were classified correctly, while 6.3% of children were wrongly classified as overweight and obese. The largest difference in BMI was observed in obese females (4.40 ± 4.34) followed by overweight females (2.18 ± 1.95) and underweight females (-1.38 ± 1.75). Similar findings were observed for males, where the largest difference was found among obese males (2.83 ± 3.44).

Conclusions: Studies based on self-reported weight and height in adolescents may be biased. Attempts should be made to correct this bias, based on the available data for each population.






[1] BMI = body mass index


M. Odeh, R. Tendler, V. Sosnovsky, M. Kais, E. Ophir and J. Bornstein

Background: Previous pregnancies may influence the success of medical termination of pregnancy.

Objectives: To determine the effect of parity and gravidity on the successful termination of pregnancy using mifepristone and misoprostol.

Methods: The medical files of all patients attending a department of obstetrics and gynecology during the years 2006 and 2007 for the purpose of medical termination of pregnancy at ≤ 49 days of gestation were analyzed retrospectively. The medical history, previous pregnancies and deliveries were recorded. Mifepristone was administered orally followed by 400 mg of misoprostol 48 hours later. A second dose of misoprostol was offered 2 weeks later if uterine content thickness was more than 15 mm. Then, after 24 hours, if uterine content thickness was more than 15 mm the uterus was evacuated by dilation and curettage.

Results: Of 403 women, 349 (86.6%) aborted following the basic regime; 207 (51.4%) (group A) were primiparous while 196 (48.6%) (group B) had at least one prior pregnancy. Uterine curettage was performed in 17 patients (8.2%) in group A and in 37 (18.9%) in group B (P = 0.002). When patients with a history of a previous abortion were excluded from group B, 32 of 143 (22.4%) required curettage (P < 0.001). When patients without a history of previous cesarean section were excluded, 10 of 52 (19.2%) underwent curettage (P = 0.038).

Conclusions: Previous pregnancies negatively affect the success of medical termination of pregnancy, especially in women with a previous term pregnancy. This information is important when counseling women about the method of pregnancy termination.
 

Z. Feldbrin, D. Hendel, A. Lipkin, D. Zin and L. Schorr

Background: Open repair of the Achilles tendon is still the gold standard for treating rupture. This technique has the disadvantage of a long and problematic operative scar and thickly scarred Achilles tendon. To improve the surgical outcome minimally invasive techniques have been developed.

Objectives: To analyze our results of Achilles tendon repair using the Achillon® device and compare them with published studies.

Methods: We performed surgical repair of the Achilles tendon in 28 patients during a 4 year period (2004–2008): 14 patients were treated with the Achillon device, 12 with the open suture technique and 2 with the percutaneous method. Fourteen patients were available for follow-up: the tendon was repaired in 9 patients with the Achillon device, in 3 patients with open suturing and in 2 patients with the percutaneous technique. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 4 years.

Results: The average score of the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale for the group treated with the Achillon device was 95.6 points (range 84–100) and for the group treated with the open method, 90 points (range 84–98). The length of the scar in patients operated with a minimally invasive technique was 3.81 cm (range 1–6 cm) as compared to 9.16 cm (range 8–10.5 cm) with the open suture.

Conclusions: This is the first review on this procedure in Israel. Excellent functional results were achieved with this technique. Our outcomes were similar to those of two other studies.
 

A. Blatt, R. Svirski, G. Morawsky, N. Uriel, O. Neeman, D. Sherman, Z. Vered and R. Krakover

Background: Little is known of the outcome of pregnant patients with previously diagnosed dilated cardiomyopathy. These patients are usually firmly advised against continuation of the pregnancy.

Objectives: To examine the usefulness of serial echocardiographic follow-up and plasma N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide levels in the management of pregnant women with preexisting DCM[1].

Methods: We prospectively enrolled pregnant women with DCM either known or diagnosed in the first trimester. Clinical examination and serial echocardiography studies at baseline, 30 weeks gestation, peripartum, and 3 and 18 months postpartum were performed. Blinded NTproBNP[2] levels were obtained at 30 weeks, delivery and 3 months postpartum.

Results: Between June 2005 and October 2006 we enrolled seven women who fulfilled the study criteria. Delivery and postpartum were complicated in 3 patients (42%): 2 with acute heart failure, which resolved conservatively, and 1 with major pulmonary embolism. The left ventricular ejection fraction was stable throughout the pregnancy (35% ± 2.8 at baseline, 33% ± 2.9 at 30 weeks) and postpartum (35% ± 2.8 at 1 day, 34% ± 3.1 at 90 days). Similar stable behavior was observed regarding left ventricular dimensions: LV[3] end-systolic diameters 43.3 ± 2.7 mm and LV end-diastolic diameters 57.3 ± 3.3 mm at baseline compared with 44.1 ± 3.1 mm and 58.7 ± 3.1 mm postpartum, respectively. The NT-ProBNP levels rose significantly peripartum in all three patients with complications.

Conclusions: Serial NT-proBNP levels, as compared to echocardiography, may be a better clinical tool in monitoring and management of pregnant women with preexisting DCM. An early rise in NT-ProBNP level appears to predict the occurrence of adverse events.






[1] DCM = dilated cardiomyopathy



[2] NTproBNP = N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide



[3] LV = left ventricular


H. Duskin-Bitan, S. Kivity, D. Olchovsky, G. Schiby, D. Ezra and M. Mouallem

Background: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a benign and self-limited disease, first reported in Japan in 1972. The characteristic features of this disorder include lymphadenopathy and fever.

Objectives: To summarize our experience with Kikuchi disease with regard to clinical manifestations and outcome.

Methods: The patients included in the study were those diagnosed with Kikuchi disease during the years 2005–2008 in two departments of internal medicine at Sheba Medical Center.

Results: We identified five patients with Kikuchi disease; four of them were women and the mean age was 22.6 years. All the patients had cervical lymphadenopathy; three had other sites of lymphadenopathy. Four of the patients had fever higher than 39ºC. Two of them had splenomegaly and three reported weight loss. Three of the five patients experienced a relapse of the disease and were treated with steroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. The diagnosis was confirmed in all the patients by an excisional biopsy of lymph node.

Conclusions: Kikuchi disease must be considered in every young patient with fever and lymphadenopathy. The disease usually has a benign course.

A. Shlomai, A. Nutman, T. Kotlovsky, V. Schechner, Y. Carmeli and H. Guzner-Gur

Background: A pandemic (H1N1) influenza A virus was identified in 2009.

Objectives: To investigate predictors for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among hospitalized patients with a flu-like illness and to identify parameters suggesting a severe clinical course.

Methods: We analyzed a cohort of all patients hospitalized during a 2 month period with a flu-like syndrome who were tested for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection. Demographic, clinical and laboratory, along with outcome parameters, were recorded and compared between pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus-positive and negative hospitalized patients.

Results: Of the 179 examined hospitalized patients suspected of having pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection 65 (36%) were found positive. These patients tended to be younger and had significantly fewer comorbidities. In addition, they had a significantly higher frequency of fever (94%), cough (86%) and myalgia (29%). Furthermore, age < 65 years and cough were independent predictors for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus positivity in a multivariate regression analysis. Notably, 14 of the 65 positive patients (21.5%) had acute respiratory insufficiency requiring treatment in the intensive care unit. These patients were neither older nor previously sicker than patients with non-severe disease, but were distinguished by augmented inflammatory markers, significant lymphopenia associated with disease severity, and overall mortality of 21.4%.

Conclusions: Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus-positive hospitalized patients tend to be younger and have fewer comorbidities as compared to compatible negative patients. A significant number of relatively young and previously healthy positive patients might develop severe disease associated with a robust inflammatory reaction and significant lymphopenia.

Reviews
A. Sulkes

The introduction of novel targeted therapies into the clinic in recent years has had a considerable impact on the management of several neoplastic diseases – such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors, hepatocellular carcinomas and renal cell carcinomas – considered until recently refractory to systemic therapies. We describe here two such novel biological agents, sunitinib and sorafenib, as a paradigm of the successful clinical application of new concepts. Sunitinib and sorafenib are small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors that target vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, C-Kit and others. Both agents are administered orally; sunitinib is typically given in cycles for 4 consecutive weeks with 2 weeks off, while sorafenib is given continually. Side effects occur in most patients, similar for both agents; they may affect several systems and organs but are mostly mild and easily manageable, rarely requiring discontinuation of the drug. However, these toxicities require prompt attention and intervention. The most frequently observed effects are hypertension, nausea, anorexia, asthenia and cutaneous manifestations; cardiac abnormalities may include congestive failure. Sunitinib, and markedly less frequently sorafenib, may cause thyroid gland dysfunction, mainly hypothyroidism. Antitumor activity has been shown for renal cell carcinoma in pivotal trials, for sunitinib as first-line treatment and for sorafenib in previously treated patients as second-line. Sunitinib is now approved as second-line therapy for patients with GIST[1] refractory to imatinib; sorafenib has resulted in a significant prolongation in median survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Ongoing clinical trials will further define the spectrum of these agents' antitumor activity, their role in combination with other drugs, as well as their optimal dose and schedule of administration.

 






[1] GIST = gastrointestinal stromal tumors


Case Communications
D. Froylich, E. Shiloni, O. Lavie, A. Neumann, E. Vlodavsky and D. Hazzan
הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303