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עמוד בית Fri, 23.08.19

October 2000


Local Update
Shlomo Lustig PhD, Menachem Halevy MSc, Pinhas Fuchs PhD, David Ben-Nathan PhD, Bat-El Lachmi PhD, David Kobiler PhD, Eitan Israeli PhD and Udy Olshevsky PhD
Original Articles
Valentin Fulga MD, Ben-Ami Sela PhD and Michael Belkin MA MD

Background: Most corneal damage induced by contact lenses is due to interference with corneal oxygenation.

Objective: To investigate the effect on the rabbit cornea of a rigid gas-permeable contact lens with a newly designed periphery.

Method: We fitted New Zealand white rabbits (n=12) with RGP[1] contact lenses that were identical in all respects except for the design of the periphery. In each animal, one contact lens had an innovative periphery consisting of a microscopic diffractive relief lathed on the back surface; the other contact lens was of a conventional design. The lenses were worn continuously for 7 days. During this experimental period and for 1 additional week we assessed the corneal damage by daily testing lactic dehydrogenase activity in the tears.

Results: On the last day of the experimental week and the first 3 days of the healing period, mean tear LDH[2] activity was significantly lower in the eyes with the new contact lens design than in eyes with the conventional lenses.

Conclusions: The novel periphery design reduces corneal damage resulting from contact lens wear, as reflected by LDH levels in the tears. The new design probably facilitates the flow and exchange of tears under the contact lens, resulting in improved metabolism of the cornea. These findings may also prove applicable to soft contact lenses.






[1] RGP = rigid gas permeable



[2] LDH = lactic dehydrogenase


Zalmzn Kaufman MSc, Irit Cohen-Manheim MSc and Manfred S. Green MD MPH PhD

Background: Although influenza is usually a mild self-limiting disease it can cause serious complications in high risk groups. The economic costs of influenza are large due to the burden on the health system and absenteeism from work. There is evidence that the vaccine is underused in groups targeted for vaccination.

Objectives: To estimate: a) the compliance rate with the influenza vaccination in Israel during the winter seasons of 1998/1999 and 1999/2000, b) the role of health care personnel and the media in influencing compliance, and c) the reasons for lack of compliance in the elderly.      

Methods: Two national population-based random telephone surveys of 1,500 households were performed during October 1999 and January 2000 to survey influenza vaccination compliance prior to the winters of 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 respectively. Each survey was performed during four successive evenings. The response rate was 78.1% for the first survey and 79.1% for the second.

Results: Vaccination compliance was similar in both surveys. The average rate of vaccination was 6% for the population under 65 years and 50% for the population of 65 years and above. The overall vaccination rate was around 10%. The family physician was the main authority to recommend the vaccination, followed by the community nurse. Absence of recommendation and lack of faith in the efficacy of the vaccine were the main reasons for non-compliance.

Conclusion: Compliance rates with influenza vaccine in targeted groups in Israel remain relatively low. Health care personnel should be more involved in promoting the vaccine.
 

Amir Shmueli, PhD

Background: With market failures characterizing the health care sector, societies are continuously searching for ways to achieve an efficient and fair allocation of resources. A natural source of opinion on the desired allocation of health resources is the public. In fact, several governments have recently involved the general public in decisions about resource allocation in their health systems.

Objectives: To investigate the views of the Israeli Jewish public aged 45-75 on horizontal equity in medical care; specifically, the characteristics (including a lottery) for determining which of two individuals with similar medical need should be treated first, against a background of limited resources.

Methods: A sample of 2,030 individuals was chosen to represent a population of about 800,000 urban Jewish Israelis aged 45–75. Data were collected in face-to-face full sit-down interviews by trained interviewers between October 1993 and February 1994.

Results: The three most preferred prioritizers were chances of recovery, number of dependants, and young age. Random prioritization was preferred by only 8% of the population. Age, level of education and religiosity were the main characteristics associated with the choice.

Conclusions: The Israeli adult public does not favor strict horizontal equity in health care. As in other social programs, “equals” were defined in a multi-criteria manner, based on both medical need and other personal characteristics. The preferred prioritizers seem to reflect universal tastes and cast doubt on the traditional distinction between efficiency and equity and between horizontal and vertical equity when applied to health care.
 

Stanley Rabin PhD, Ernesto Kahan MD MPH, Simon Zalewsky MD, Barbara Rabin MA, Michael Hertz MD, Ofra Mehudar BA and Eliezer Kitai MD

Background: *Previous descriptive studies have demonstrated the problematic nature of physicians' attitudes toward battered women. However, little empirical research has been done in the field, especially among the various medical specialties.

Objectives: To compare the approach and feelings of competence regarding the care of battered women between primary care and non-primary care physicians. The non-primary care physicians who are likely to encounter battered women in the ambulatory setting are gynecologists and orthopedists.

Methods: A self-report questionnaire formulated for this study was mailed to a random sample of 400 physicians working in ambulatory clinics of the two main health maintenance organizations in Israel (300 primary care physicians, 50 gynecologists and 50 orthopedists).

Results: In both physician groups, treating battered women tended to evoke more negative emotional states than treating patients with infectious disease. The most prevalent mood state related to the management of battered women was anger at her situation. Primary care physicians experienced more states of tension and confusion than non-primary care physicians and had lower perceived self-efficacy and self-competence in dealing with battered women.

Conclusions: Though both physician groups exhibited negative feelings when confronting battered women, the stronger emotion of the primary care physicians may indicate greater sensitivity and personal awareness. We believe that more in-service training should be introduced to help physicians at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels to cope both emotionally and professionally with these patients.

Editorials
Michael Blumenthal, MD and Moshe Schwartz, OD
Zecharia Madar, PhD and Aliza H. Stark, PhD
Reviews
Haim Paran, MD, Ivan Shwartz, MD and Uri Freund, MD
Raana Shamir, MD, Aaron Lerner, MD, MHA and Edward A. Fisher, MD, PhD
Case Communications
הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303