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עמוד בית Wed, 26.06.19

April 2003

Original Articles
O. Nevo, E. Avisar, A. Tamir, M.S. Coffler, P. Sumov and I.R. Makhoul

Background: Multifetal pregnancy reduction has been implemented for improving the outcome of multifetal pregnancies. Recent studies reported no difference in pregnancy outcome between reduced twins and non-reduced twins, but the neonatal course and subsequent outcome in reduced twin pregnancies were not well documented.

Objective: To compare the neonatal course and outcome, as well as the gestational and labor characteristics, in twins from reduced multifetal pregnancies and in non-reduced twins.

Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study of the neonatal course of twins from reduced multifetal pregnancies. We found 64 mothers with multifetal pregnancy reduction who delivered twins during 1989–1997; 64 gestational age-matched non-reduced twin pregnancies served as controls. The following neonatal variables were examined: major malformations; small birth weight for gestational age; and neonatal morbidities including respiratory distress syndrome, apnea, pneumothorax, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, hyperbilirubinemia, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, seizures, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, ventriculomegaly, and hydrocephalus. In addition, we evaluated several neonatal interventions (surfactant replacement, mechanical ventilation, phototherapy, total parenteral nutrition), and some laboratory abnormalities (thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia, and hypoglycemia), duration of hospitalization, and neonatal mortality.

Results: Gestational and labor variables were not significantly different between multifetal pregnancies reduced to twins and non-reduced twin pregnancies. The neonatal morbidity and mortality were not significantly different between twin neonates from multifetal pregnancy reduction and non-reduced control twins.

Conclusions: Multifetal pregnancy reduction to twins appears to bear no adverse effect on the intrauterine course of the remaining fetuses or their neonatal course and outcome when born after 28 weeks of gestation.

S. Behar, A. Battler, A. Porath, J. Leor, E. Grossman, Y. Hasin, M. Mittelman, Z. Feigenberg, C. Rahima-Maoz, M. Green, A. Caspi, B. Rabinowitz and M. Garty

Background: Little information is available on the clinical practice and implementation of guidelines in treating acute myocardial infarction patients in Israel.

Objective: To assess patient characteristics, hospital course, management, and 30 day clinical outcome of all AMI[1] patients hospitalized in Israel during a 2 month period in 2000.

Method: We conducted a prospective 2 month survey of consecutive AMI patients admitted to 82 of 96 internal medicine departments and all 26 cardiac departments operating in Israel in 2000. Data were collected uniformly by means of a hospital and 30 day follow-up form.

Results: During the survey 1,683 consecutive patients with a discharge diagnosis of AMI were included. Their mean age was 66 years; 73% were male. The electrocardiographic pattern on admission revealed ST elevation, non-ST elevation and an undetermined ECG[2] in 63%, 34% and 4% of patients respectively. Aspirin and heparin were given to 95% of patients. Beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were given to 76% and 65% of patients respectively. Among hospital survivors, 45% received lipid-lowering drugs. Thrombolytic therapy was administered in 28% of patients, coronary angiography was used in 45%, and 7% of patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The 7 and 30 day mortality rates were 7% and 11% respectively.

Conclusions: This nationwide survey shows that one-third of the AMI patients in Israel are elderly (≥ 75 years). The survey suggests that clinical guidelines for the management of patients with AMI are partially implemented in the community. Data from large surveys representing the "real world" practice are of utmost importance for the evaluation of clinical guidelines, research and educational purposes.

[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction

[2] ECG = electrocardiogram

G. Amit, S. Goldman, L. Ore, M. Low and J.D. Kark

Background: Although the preferred management of a patient presenting with an acute myocardial infarction is in a coronary care unit, data based on discharge diagnoses in Israel indicate that many of these patients are treated outside such units.

Objectives: To compare the demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment and mortality of AMI[1] patients treated inside and outside a CCU[2].

Methods: We compiled a registry of all patients admitted to three general hospitals in Haifa, Israel during January, March, May, July, September and November 1996.

Results: The non-CCU admission rate was 22%. CCU patients were younger (61.6 vs. 65.5 years), less likely to report a past AMI (18% vs. 34%), and arrived earlier at the emergency room. Non-CCU patients were more likely to present with severe heart failure (30 vs. 11%). Non-CCU patients received less aspirin (81 vs. 95%) and beta-blockers (62 vs. 80%). Upon discharge, these patients were less frequently prescribed beta-blockers and cardiac rehabilitation programs. CCU-treated patients had lower unadjusted mortality rates at both 30 days (odds ratio=0.35) and in the long term (hazards ratio=0.57). These ratios were attenuated after controlling for gender, age, type of AMI, and degree of heart failure (OR[3]=0.91 and HR[4]=0.78, respectively).

Conclusions: A relatively high proportion of AMI patients were treated outside a CCU, with older and sicker patients being denied admission to a CCU. The process of evidence-based care by cardiologists was preferable to that of internists both during the hospital stay and at discharge. In Israel a significant proportion of all AMI admissions are initially treated outside a CCU. Emphasis on increasing awareness in internal medicine departments to evidence-based care of AMI is indicated.

[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction

[2] CCU = coronary care unit

[3] OR = odds ratio

[4] HR = hazards ratio

R. Nesher and U. Ticho

Background: The frequent systemic side effects associated with the use of systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have adversely affected the compliance to treatment in glaucoma patients, obviating their long-term use. The introduction of the topical CAI[1], dorzolamide, has further reduced their use. However, the tolerability of dorzolamide in patients who have been intolerant to systemic CAIs has not been evaluated prospectively.

Objectives: To study the tolerability and efficacy of dorzolamide (a topical CAI) in a selected group of glaucoma and ocular hypertensive patients who have been intolerant to systemic CAI.

Methods: A 3 month prospective study was conducted in 39 patients. Following recruitment, patients were evaluated on the day of switching from systemic CAI to dorzolamide and for five more visits. The SF-36 health assessment questionnaire was used to evaluate changes in well-being and quality of life, and the intraocular pressure was measured periodically.

Results: Within 4 weeks of switching from systemic CAI to dorzolamide, the mean health assessment scores improved significantly in seven of the eight categories of the SF-36, and remained generally unchanged for the rest of the study. No significant differences were noted between the mean IOP[2] on day 0 and the following measurements throughout the 84 days of dorzolamide therapy.

Conclusion: In glaucoma patients who were intolerant to systemic CAI, topical CAI dorzolamide offers a similar efficacy and better tolerability.

[1] CIA = carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

[2] IOP = intraocular pressure

O. Merimsky, M. Inbar, J. Bickels, J. Issakov, Y. Kollender, G. Flusser and I. Meller

Background: The incidence of malignant musculoskeletal tumors during pregnancy is very low. The paucity of data precludes the drawing of solid conclusions regarding a standard approach.

Objectives: To summarize our experience treating 13 pregnant women with malignant soft tissue or bone tumors.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 13 cases of patients with either soft tissue or bone sarcoma that developed or progressed during pregnancy or immediately after delivery.

Results: The clinical presentation of the tumors was either a growing mass and/or increasing pain and disability. Most of the masses were located in the lower part of the body and of considerable size. Treatment given during gestation was limited to wide excision of the mass in the 28th week of gestation in one patient. All the patients reported disease progression during gestation. Vaginal delivery was possible in eight patients with no complications, cesarean section was carried out in three women, spontaneous miscarriage occurred in one and termination of pregnancy was performed in one patient.

Conclusions: The diagnostic and therapeutic approaches should be tailored specifically in every pregnant woman in whom sarcoma is suspected.

M. Eidelman, V. Bialik, Y. Miller and I. Kassis

Background: Puncture wounds in the feet of children present a clinical dilemma.

Objectives: To evaluate our approach, we reviewed the charts and all available images of 80 children admitted to our institution because of plantar punctures from 1988 to 1999.

Methods: The charts of 80 children were reviewed retrospectively.

Results: Three groups of patients were found: 59 with superficial cellulitis, 11 with retained foreign bodies, and 10 with osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis. There was a significant presentation delay in patients from the second and third groups. Most common organisms were Staphylococcus aureus or Group A Streptococcus. Of the 80 children, 34 were treated surgically and 46 were treated with antibiotic therapy alone. All patients with osteomyelitis and septic arthritis were re-examined; at follow-up, all but one were asymptomatic apart from residual radiologic sequelae in four.

Conclusions: Patients with an established infection 24–36 hours after a plantar puncture should be admitted to hospital for parenteral antibiotic therapy. Delayed presentation is a significant marker for deep-seated infection. Further infection or relapse after initial improvement suggests the presence of osteomyelitis or a retained foreign body. A bone scan is advisable in all patients with suspected osteomyelitis: a positive bone scan necessitates aggressive early debridement combined with appropriate antibiotics; while negative bone scan, X-ray and exploration suggest that the infection is due to a foreign body, which can be detected by computed tomography.

R. Ben-Abraham, E. Hadad, A.A. Weinbroum, O. Efrat and G. Paret

Vasopressin is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor that increases blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. The administration of exogenous vasopressin during closed and open cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans was shown to be more effective than optimal doses of epinephrine in several clinical studies. We summarize here the recent experimental and clinical data on the use of vasopressin in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and septic shock. As the use of vasopressin in human resuscitation is now in its early stages, it is expected that accumulated future experience will shed more light regarding the risk-benefit aspects of its use.

D. Nizan Kaluski, T.H. Tulchinsky, A. Haviv, Y. Averbicj. S. Rachmiel, E.B. Berry and A. Leventhal

Micronutrient deficiencies have reoccupied the center stage of public health policy with the realization that folic acid deficiency results in neural tube defects and possibly other birth defects as well as ischemic heart disease. These, in turn, have raised an older debate on food fortification policy for the elimination of iodine, iron and vitamin D deficiencies. Data from the First Israeli National Health and Nutrition Survey (MABAT 2000) provided an impetus to develop an active national nutrition policy aimed to improve the nutritional status of iodine, iron, vitamins A and D and B-vitamins, including folate. In this paper we examine some of the MND[1] issues in Israel and their implications for public health, and suggest options for the formulation of policy.

[1] MND = micronutrient deficiency

הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303