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עמוד בית
Sat, 28.11.20

September 2004

M. Clarfield, E. Rosenberg, J. Brodsky and N. Bentur

Mortality rates have been falling at all ages, even for very old cohorts, in most western countries as well as in Israel. The question remains open as to whether morbidity rates are also decreasing, especially for Israel’s elderly. While health is improving in almost all industrialized countries, the situation in Israel is not yet resolved. While the more recent cohorts of the young-old (65–74 years) are healthier than their predecessors, Israel’s old-old (75+) may still be lagging behind other countries with regard to improvements in health status. This phenomenon is not well understood but could be explained in part by the more severe formative experiences of many of Israel’s very elderly cohort.

Original Articles
Z. Fireman, Y. Kopelman, L. Fish, A. Sternberg, E. Scapa and E. Mahajna

Background: During ingestible capsule endoscopy, video images are recorded throughout the device's natural propulsion through the digestive system. Shortening the transit time of the wireless video capsule through the stomach and small bowel could reduce the time needed to read and analyze the resultant images, utilize more effectively the short life of the capsule battery (7 ± 1 hours) and make it possible to image the entire small bowel.

Objective: To measure gastric and small bowel transit times, with and without preparation, using capsule endoscopy.

Methods: Capsule transit times through the stomach, small bowel and colon were evaluated by analysis of the videos generated during the capsule's passage. The study group included 62 patients with small and large bowel pathologies (e.g., iron deficiency anemia, Crohn's disease). The patients were divided into three groups: prepared with polyethylene glycol (Group A, n = 9), prepared with sodium phosphate (Group B, n = 13), and with no preparation (Group C, n = 40).

Results: The gastric emptying times were 20.4 ± 15.2 minutes in group A, 55.7 ± 45.1 in group B, and 48.3 ± 28.7 in group C (P = 0.01). The capsule produced views of the cecum in only 49 of the 62 patients. The mean small bowel transit time for these 49 patients was 238.8 ± 82.1 minutes, making the mean times for the groups (A,B,C) 148.9 ± 32.6, 289.4 ± 77.2 and 249.3 ± 73.9 minutes respectively (P = 0.0001).

Conclusion: Compared to both SP[1] and no preparation, preparation of the colon with PEG[2] significantly shortened the transit time of the capsule through the stomach and small bowel.

[1] SP = sodium phosphate

[2] PEG = polyethylene glycol

I. Dudkiewicz, A. Oran, M. Salai, R. Palti and M. Pritsch

Background: Adhesive capsulitis, also termed “frozen shoulder,” is controversial by definition and diagnostic criteria that are not sufficiently understood. The clinical course of this condition is considered as self-limiting and is divided into three clinical phases. Several treatment methods for adhesive capsulitis have been reported in the literature, none of which has proven superior to others.

Objectives: To evaluate the long-term follow-up of patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis who were treated conservatively.

Methods: We conducted a long-term follow-up (range 5.5–16 years, mean 9.2 years) of 54 patients suffering from idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. All patients were treated with physical therapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Results: An increased statistically significant improvement (P < 0.00001) was found between the first and last visits to the polyclinic in all measured movement directions: elevation and external and internal rotation.

Conclusions: Conservative treatment (physical therapy and NSAIDs[1]) is a good long-term treatment regimen for idiopathic adhesive capsulitis.

[1] NSAIDs = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

O. Efrati, D. Modan-Moses, A. Barak, Y. Boujanover, A. Augarten, A. Szeinberg, I. Levy and Y. Yahav

Background: Pulmonary disease is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in cystc fibrosis patients. New techniques such as non-invasive positive pressure ventilation have resulted in prolongation of life expectancy in CF[1] patients with end-stage lung disease.

Objectives: To determine the role of NIPPV[2] in CF patients awaiting lung transplantation.

Methods: Between 1996 and 2001 nine CF patients (5 females) with end-stage lung disease were treated with bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation in the "spontaneous" mode.

Results: The patients' mean age at initiation of BiPAP[3] was 15 years (range 13–40 years) and the mean duration of BiPAP usage was 8 months (range 3–16 months). Four patients underwent successful lung transplantation, three patients died while awaiting transplantation, and the remaining two are still on NIPPV while waiting for transplantation. Patients' body mass index increased significantly (P < 0.05) during BiPAP therapy (from 16.1 to 17.2 kg/m2). Blood pH, paCO2, and bicarbonate improved significantly (from 7.31 to 7.38, 90.8 to 67.2 mmHg, and 48.9 to 40.3 mEq/L, respectively). Pulmonary function tests were not affected by BiPAP usage. The patients experienced a significant alleviation in morning headaches and improvement in quality of sleep (P < 0.003). There were no major complications during BiPAP usage.

Conclusions: We demonstrated that long-term NIPPV can stabilize and improve physiologic parameters such as ventilation, arterial blood gases and body mass index, as well as subjective symptoms such as sleep pattern, daily activity level, and morning headaches in CF patients with end-stage lung disease. Further prospectively controlled studies are needed to evaluate the potential of BiPAP therapy and its influence on morbidity and mortality in the post-lung transplantation period.

[1] CF = cystic fibrosis

[2] NIPPV = non-invasive positive pressure ventilation

[3] BiPAP = bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation

D. Greenberg, P. Yagupsky, N. Peled, A. Goldbart, N. Porat and A. Tal

Background: Transmission of Pseudomonas aeruginosa among cystic fibrosis patients attending health camps has been reported previously.

Objectives: To determine the transmission of P. aeruginosa among CF[1] patients during three winter camps in the Dead Sea region in southern Israel.

Methods: Three consecutive CF patient groups were studied, each of which spent 3 weeks at the camp. The patients were segragated prior to camp attendance: patients who were not colonized with P. aeruginosa constituted the first group and colonized patients made up the two additional groups. Sputum cultures were obtained upon arrival, at mid-camp and on the last day. Environmental cultures were also obtained. Patients were separated during social activities and were requested to avoid social mingling. Isolates were analyzed by antibiotics susceptibility profile and by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

Results: Ninety isolates from 19 patients produced 28 different fingerprint patterns by PFGE[2]. Isolates from two siblings and two patients from the same clinic displayed the same fingerprint pattern. These patients were already colonized with these organisms upon arrival. Two couples were formed during the camp, but PFGE showed no transmission of organisms. All other patients' isolates displayed unique fingerprint patterns and were distinguishable from those of other attendees, and none of the P. aeruginosa-negative patients acquired P. aeruginosa during camp attendance. Environmental cultures were negative for P. aeruginosa.

Conclusions: We were unable to demonstrate cross-infection of P. aeruginosa among CF patients participating in health camps at the Dead Sea who were meticulously segregated.

[1] CF = cystic fibrosis

[2] PFGE = pulsed field gel electrophoresis

R. Gofin, B. Adler and H. Palti

Background: Prenatal care in Israel is established as a universal service, but the degree of compliance with care recommendations may vary with the healthcare provider or the characteristics of the population.

Objectives: To study referral to and compliance with the performance of ultrasound, alpha-fetoprotein and amniocentesis and the factors associated with them in a national sample. 

Methods: The sampling frame consisted of women who gave birth during March 2000. The sample included 1,100 Israeli Jewish and Arab women who resided in localities with over 50,000 and 20,000 inhabitants respectively. They were interviewed by phone 3 months after delivery. 

Results: In both population groups 30% reported having seven or more ultrasounds during pregnancy. The performance of fetal body scans was relatively low. Factors associated with non-performance among Jewish women were: lower education, religiousness, and attending Mother and Child Health services as compared to all other services. Seventy-seven percent of Jewish women and 84% of Arab women reported that they had been referred for alpha-protein tests. For women aged 35 and over, 55% of Jewish women were referred and 63% complied, whereas 39% of Arab women were referred but none complied.

Conclusions: Ultrasound is almost universally performed among Jewish and Arab women; however fetal body scans, alpha-fetoprotein and amniocentesis (for women over the age of 35) are not. The reasons for the lower coverage may be due to under-referral and/or lack of compliance of the women, perhaps due to sociocultural barriers. In both population groups considerable out-of-pocket money is paid for the tests.

R. Tauman, S.H. Reisner, Y. Amitai, J. Wasser, H. Nehama and Y. Sivan

Background: Prone sleeping has been recognized as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome. Ten years ago, non-prone sleeping was recommended in many countries around the world including Israel. The rate of infants sleeping prone and the rate of parents' adherence with the recommendations have not been studied.

Objectives: To study infants' sleep position and parents’ adherence to recommendations, and to identify risk factors for prone sleeping following the campaign to prevent prone sleeping in the Israeli population.

Methods: We conducted a longitudinal telephone survey with the parents of 608 randomly selected 2 month old infants, repeated at 4 and 6 months.

Results: Non-prone sleeping decreased from 75% to 67% and 63% at 2, 4 and 6 months respectively. There was a significant relationship between prone positioning and the use of a home apnea monitor at 2 months (P = 0.038, odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 0.94–2.15). Other risk factors for prone sleeping were the level of religious practice, with ultra-Orthodox Jews having the highest prevalence (2 months: OR[1] 2.78, 95% CI[2] 1.75–4.55) and higher parity – especially in families with more than five children (P = 0.041).

Conclusions: The prone sleeping position is relatively high in Israel. Groups at high risk were closely associated with the level of religiousness and parity. Efforts to promote supine sleeping should be directed towards identifiable groups.

[1] OR = odds ratio

[2] CI = confidence interval

E. Zimlichman, D. Mandel, F.B. Mimouni, R. Wartenfeld, M. Huerta, I. Grotto and Y. Kreiss

Background: Oral contraceptive users are at increased risk for both arterial and venous thrombosis, some of which can be fatal. Studies are consistent with the existence of a synergism between cigarette smoking and OC[1] use in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction in young women.

Objectives: To study the relationship between OC use, cigarette smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors among young women.

Methods: A systematic sample of military personnel, upon discharge from service in the Israel Defense Forces, was asked to complete a research questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and body mass index computed.

Results: Overall, 16,258 questionnaires were collected and analyzed during this 20 year study. There was a gradual, significant increase in OC use until the mid-1980s, from approximately 45% to 60% (P < 0.001), followed by steady rates of 58–64% since then. In contrast, the rates of smoking decreased significantly in the mid-1980s, from approximately 42% to a nadir of 22% in 1991. Since then, the rate of smoking has increased slowly but steadily, to reach a level of 35% in 1999. The OC users were more often of western (Ashkenazi) origin and came from families with more education and fewer siblings. They were more often smokers than non-OC users, and started smoking at a younger age. They had significantly lower BMI[2] than non-users. OC use was nearly identical in groups with or without multiple cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, obesity, family history).

Conclusions: Smoking and OC use are strongly associated. Other cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, obesity, family history) do not prevent OC users from smoking or smokers to use OC. We suggest that primary care physicians discourage smoking among adolescent females who wish to start using OC. A thorough medical history should be obtained to recognize all risk factors for cardiovascular disease and to provide for appropriate contraception counseling.

[1] OC = oral contraceptives

[2] BMI = body mass index

J. Levy, T. Monos, J. Kapelushnik, E. Maor, M. Nash and T. Lifshitz

Histiocytosis of childhood is characterized by localized or generalized proliferation of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system and the dendritic cell system. In patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis, the orbita is the most involved site encountered in ophthalmic practice, usually as a lytic lesion in the zygomaticofrontal suture. Patients usually present with acute or chronic periorbital swelling. Electron microscopic findings of Birbeck granules and positive staining for CD1 antigenic determinant confirm the diagnosis.

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