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עמוד בית
Sat, 24.02.24

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February 2020
Moti Harats MD, Josef Haik MD MPH, Michelle Cleary RN, PhD, Ilan Vashurin MD, Uri Aviv MD and Rachel Kornhaber RN PhD

Background: Rapid and selective bromelain-based enzymatic debridement provides a non-surgical alternative for the eschar removal in deep burns, which allows for early debridement of large surface areas, accurate evaluation of burn and wound depth, and the need for skin grafting.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of application of a bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement (Nexobrid®) beyond the manufacturer’s guidelines for use in burns > 48 hours as well as chemical, electrical, and pediatric burns, and chronic wounds

Methods: This retrospective review included records collected between January 2017 and April 2019, from male and female patients aged 8 months to 99 years with deep burns or wounds treated with bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement.

Results: Of the 33 patients who received the bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement agent beyond the manufacturer’s guidelines, 25 (76%) were observed to have successful debridement of the eschar, 8 (24%) were observed to have little effect on the burn eschar. Sixteen required further surgery after debridement. Clinical data on the use of bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement agents are limited, but these results suggest the capacity to effectively debride burns > 48 hours (late presentation burns), use for pediatrics and for chemical and electrical burns, and apply to hard to heal full thickness chronic wounds.

Conclusions: Bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement was found to be an effective treatment modality beyond the recommended guidelines including late presentation burns and chronic wounds. This debridement method warrants further consideration when making clinical decisions concerning burn and wound care.

May 2019
Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Shirly Shohat MD, Boris Kessel MD, William P. Schecter, Alexander Beicker MD and Igor Jeroukhimov MD

Background: Selective management of stable patients with anterior abdomen stab wounds (AASWs) has become a gold standard management approach throughout the world. Evidenced-based options for supporting selective management include clinical follow-up, local wound exploration with or without diagnostic peritoneal lavage, diagnostic laparoscopy, and abdominal computerized tomography. The presence of multiple AASWs might signify a more aggressive attack and limit the safety of a selective management approach.

Objectives: To evaluate whether multiple AASWs are associated with an increased risk of intra-abdominal injury requiring emergency surgery.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all AASW patients admitted to Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel, and Hillel Yaffe Medical Center in Hadera, Israel, from 2007 to 2015. Patients were divided into two groups based on the number of stab wounds: single or multiple. Data were coded for demographics, severity of injury, presence of intra-abdominal injury, laparotomy rate, length of hospital stay (LOS), length of stay in the intensive care unit (LICU), and survival.

Results: The study included 169 patients. Of these, 143 patients had a single AASW and 26 had multiple AASWs. There were no differences between the groups regarding demographics, severity of injury, intra-abdominal penetration, specific organ injury, LOS, or LICU. There was no difference in the percentage of patients requiring laparotomy. The overall mortality was 2.36% (4/169). There was no significant difference in the mortality rate between the groups (P = 0.11).

Conclusions: The presence of multiple AASWs is not a risk factor for increased frequency and severity of intra-abdominal injury.

September 2011
Y. Feldman-Idov, Y. Melamed and L. Ore

Background: Wounds of the lower extremities are a significant problem, being severe and costly to treat. Adjunctive treatment with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBOT) has proven to be a useful and cost-effective means of treating ischemic wounds, mainly in diabetic patients.

Objectives: To describe patients with ischemic wounds treated at the Rambam and Elisha Hyperbaric Medical Center and their wound improvement following HBOT.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients (N=385) treated in the center during 19982007 for ischemic non-healing wounds in the lower extremities.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.9 years (SD 13.97). Most of them were diabetic (69.6%) and male (68.8%). Half of the subjects had a wound for more than 3 months prior to undergoing pre-HBOT transcutaneous oximetry (TcPO2) testing. Most of the wounds were classified as Wagner degree 1 or 2 (39.1% and 46.2% respectively). The median number of treatments per patient was 29. Only 63.1% of patients had continuous treatments. Approximately 20% of patients experienced mild side effects. An improvement occurred in 282 patients (77.7%) following HBOT: 15.2% fully recovered, 42.7% showed a significant improvement (and were expected to heal spontaneously), and 19.8% a slight improvement.

Conclusions: HBOT can benefit the treatment of non-healing ischemic wounds (especially when aided by pretreatment TcPO2 evaluation; data not shown). Our experience shows that this procedure is safe and contributes to wound healing.

September 2009
A. Burg, M. Salai, G. Nachum, B. Haviv, S. Heller and I. Dudkiewicz

Background: Gunshot wounds impose a continuous burden on community and hospital resources. Gunshot injuries to the extremities might involve complex soft tissue, bone, vascular, musculotendinous, and nerve injuries. A precise knowledge of anatomy is needed to evaluate and treat those injuries.

Objectives: To review our experience with gunshot wounds to the extremities.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of gunshot wounds to the limbs in a civilian setting treated in our institution during 2003–2005. Altogether, we evaluated 60 patients with 77 injuries.

Results: Of the 60 patients 36 had fractures, 75% of them in the lower extremity and 81% in long bones. The most common fixation modality used was external fixation (33%), followed by intramedullary nailing (25%). This relatively high percentage of fracture treated with external fixation may be attributed to the comminuted pattern of the fractures, the general status of the patient, or the local soft tissue problems encountered in gunshot wounds. About one-fifth of the fractures were treated by debridement only without hardware fixation. We treated 10 vascular injuries in 8 patients; 6 of them were injuries to the popliteal vessels. Fractures around the knee comprised the highest risk factor for vascular injuries, since 5 of the 12 fractures around the knee were associated with vascular injury requiring repair or reconstruction. There were 13 nerve injuries (16.8%), most of them of the deep peroneal nerve (38%). Only three patients had concomitant nerve and vascular injuries. The overall direct complication rate in our series was 20%.

Conclusions: Treating complex gunshot injuries requires a team approach, necessary for a favorable outcome. This team should be led by an orthopedic surgeon knowledgeable in the functional anatomy of the limbs.
 

February 2008
B. Kessel, K. Peleg, Y. Hershekovitz, T. Khashan, A. Givon, I. Ashkenazi and R. Alfici

Background: Non-operative management following abdominal stab wounds is possible in selected patients who are both hemodynamically stable and do not have signs of peritonitis. However, the rate of failure of non-operative management is higher in Israel than in western countries.

Objectives: To assess the patterns of injury following abdominal stabbing.

Methods: Data from the Israeli Trauma Registry were used to identify all patients with abdominal stab injury admitted to eight different trauma centers between 1997 and 2004.

Results: The number of patients admitted per year more than doubled between 1997 and 2004, from 257 to 599. The percentage of patients with severe injury (Index Severity Score ≥ 16) increased from 9.4% to 19.0%. The incidence of multiple stab injuries almost doubled, from 37% to 62%.

Conclusions: Review of the data in the Israeli Trauma Registry indicates an increase in both absolute rate and relative incidence of serious stab injuries. This indicates that patterns of injury following stab wounds are not necessarily similar, not even within the same geographical area over time.
 

March 2006
E. Bar-Meir, D. Mendes and E. Winkler

Background: The suspicion of child abuse and neglect may arise from manifestations such as physical or psychosomatic symptoms, eating disorders, suicidal behavior, impaired parental functioning, etc. Thus the arrival of an abused or neglected child at the hospital provides an opportunity for detecting the problem and beginning a process of change. Optimal utilization of this potential depends on the awareness, diagnostic ability and cooperation of the staff.

Objectives: To assess knowledge about hospital policy, attitudes and actual behavior of hospital staff in cases of SCAN[1].

Methods: The questionnaire was adapted and distributed to a convenience sample of personnel at a children’s hospital. The questionnaire included items on knowledge of hospital policy regarding SCAN, attitudes towards inquiring about cases that appear suspicious, and behaviors in cases in which the respondent was involved. The comparison of responses to specific questions and among members of different professions was analyzed by chi-square test.

Results: Eighty-two staff members completed the questionnaires. Most of the respondents were aware of hospital policy regarding suspected abuse (86.6%), with fewer regarding suspected neglect (77.2%). Physicians were the least aware of these policies, as compared to medical students, nurses and social workers. Although most considered the issue of SCAN a responsibility of members of their own profession, 35.4% considered it primarily the responsibility of the welfare or judicial systems. Over 40% felt uncomfortable discussing suspicions with the child and nearly half felt uncomfortable discussing them with parents. The most often reported reason for this was the sense that they lacked skills or training for dealing with the issue. Despite this, when asked about actual behavior, 94.7% responded that they do try to clarify the circumstances related to the suspicious symptoms. Respondents were more likely to contact the hospital social worker than community resources (91.5% vs. 47.2%).

Conclusions: The findings highlight the need to encourage awareness, discourse and training of medical personnel about issues related to SCAN in order to maximize their potential contribution to identifying children at risk.






[1] SCAN = suspicion of child abuse and neglect


E. Bar-Meir, D. Mendes and E. Winkler

The role of skin substitutes in burn surgery and in the treatment of chronic wounds is constantly evolving. New products are regularly being developed and approved for clinical use. Studies on existing products demonstrate their effectiveness in different clinical scenarios. However, cost-related concerns, inadequate physician education, and the drawbacks that still accompany every skin substitute have resulted in limited application of these modalities. Today, burn surgeons still rely mostly on old-fashioned skin grafts. Only a few burn centers in the world actually use some of these products in their routine treatment of wounds. This review provides an up-to-date overview of the latest developments in the field of skin substitutes. We examine the major commercially available skin substitute products and their performance, and briefly review the technologies and products that are under development but have not yet become widely available.

August 2005
R. Fedakar, N. Turkmen, D. Durak, and U.N. Gundogmus
 Background: Despite many published retrospective analyses on cardiac injuries in treated patients, there is a striking scarcity of population-based studies that include autopsies.

Objectives: To provide data on fatal traumatic heart wounds in autopsied cases.

Methods: We reviewed 2,487 medico-legal autopsy records of the morgue department of the Bursa branch of the Turkish Council of Forensic Medicine for the period 1997–2001.

Results: Of these cases, 160 (6.4%) had cardiac injury; 13.8% were females and 86.2% males, and the mean age was 35.9 years old (range 4–65). The most common cause of heart wounds was penetrating trauma (87.5%), namely sharp injuries (48.1%) and firearm injuries (39.4%). The two most common causes of blunt heart wounds were traffic accidents (5.6%) and falls from a height (5%). Rupture was present in 96.9% of the cases, and isolated left ventricle and isolated right ventricle were ruptured in 31.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In penetrating injury the risk of ventricle rupture was higher than of atrium rupture. Alcohol was detected in 16.3% of cases. Only 3.5% of the penetrating cardiac injury cases and 5% of the blunt cardiac injury cases were admitted to hospital.

Conclusions: Given that only a very low percentage of the patients who sustain cardiac injury reach hospital alive, population-based studies, especially autopsy results, should be conducted to define the characteristics of cardiac injuries.

April 2003
M. Eidelman, V. Bialik, Y. Miller and I. Kassis

Background: Puncture wounds in the feet of children present a clinical dilemma.

Objectives: To evaluate our approach, we reviewed the charts and all available images of 80 children admitted to our institution because of plantar punctures from 1988 to 1999.

Methods: The charts of 80 children were reviewed retrospectively.

Results: Three groups of patients were found: 59 with superficial cellulitis, 11 with retained foreign bodies, and 10 with osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis. There was a significant presentation delay in patients from the second and third groups. Most common organisms were Staphylococcus aureus or Group A Streptococcus. Of the 80 children, 34 were treated surgically and 46 were treated with antibiotic therapy alone. All patients with osteomyelitis and septic arthritis were re-examined; at follow-up, all but one were asymptomatic apart from residual radiologic sequelae in four.

Conclusions: Patients with an established infection 24–36 hours after a plantar puncture should be admitted to hospital for parenteral antibiotic therapy. Delayed presentation is a significant marker for deep-seated infection. Further infection or relapse after initial improvement suggests the presence of osteomyelitis or a retained foreign body. A bone scan is advisable in all patients with suspected osteomyelitis: a positive bone scan necessitates aggressive early debridement combined with appropriate antibiotics; while negative bone scan, X-ray and exploration suggest that the infection is due to a foreign body, which can be detected by computed tomography.
 

July 2002
Yoav Mintz, MD, Shmuel C. Shapira, MD, MPH, Alon J. Pikarsky, MD, David Goitein, MD, Iryna Gertcenchtein, Eng, Shlomo Mor-Yosef, MD and Avraham I. Rivkind, MD

Background: During a period of 13 months - 1 October 2000 to 31 October 2001 – 586 terror assault casualties were treated in the trauma unit and emergency department of Hadassah University Hospital (Ein Kerem campus); 27% (n = 158) were hospitalized and the rest were discharged within 24 hours.

Objectives: To analyze the special requirements of a large number of victims who received treatment during a short period.

Methods: Data were attained from the main admitting office and the trauma registry records. Analysis was conducted of: age, gender, mechanism of injury, anatomic site of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and length of stay.

Results: Males comprised 81% of the hospitalized patients. The majority of the injuries (70%) were due to gunshot wounds and 31% of the hospitalized patients were severely injured (ISS ≥ 16). Twelve patients died, yielding a mortality rate of 7.5%.

Conclusion: The nature of the injuries was more complex and severe than trauma of other etiologies, as noted by the mean length of stay (10.2 vs. 7.2 days), mean intensive care unit stay (2.8 vs. 0.9 days), and mean operations per patient (0.7 vs. 0.5). The mean insurance cost for each hospitalized terror casualty was also higher than for other trauma etiologies (US$ 3,200 vs. 2,500).

Dorith Shaham, MD, Tamar Sella, MD, Arnon Makori, MD, Liat Appelbaum, MD, Avraham I. Rivkind, MD and Jacob Bar Ziv, MD
June 2001
Alexander Blankstein, MD, Ilan Cohen, MD, Zehava Heiman, MD, Moshe Salai, MD, Lydia Diamant, RT, Michael Heim, MD and Aharon Chechick, MD

Background: Foreign bodies are sometimes overlooked in the initial evaluation of soft tissue wounds in the emergency room setting. The physical examination identifies foreign bodies that are superficial enough to be seen or palpated, while radiographs reveal those that are radio-opaque. If these two criteria are not met, however, the foreign body may remain undetected. These patients present later with long-standing pain in the area of penetration sometimes associated with localized tenderness.

Objectives: To assess the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis and management of patients with a suspected retained foreign body.

Methods: Ultrasound was used in 21 patients with suspected retained foreign bodies and the diagnosis was positive in 19. Fifteen underwent a surgical exploration in which the ultrasound was used as an adjunctive modality either pre- or intraoperatively to assist in the localization of the foreign body.

Results: All procedures were successful. No postoperative complications were recorded at an average follow-up of 2 years. Three patients gradually became asymptomatic and were left untreated. One patient was lost to follow-up.

Conclusion: Sonography is an extremely effective tool for the late diagnosis of retained foreign bodies in the soft tissues. We suggest that its availability in the emergency room may decrease the rate of misdiagnosis and avoid these unfortunate cases, although this remains tc be proven.
 

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