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עמוד בית
Wed, 12.06.24

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March 2022
Alex Byrne BSc MBBS MRCP, Jonathan Lambert BMBS BMed Sci PhD FRCP FRC Path, Derek Yellon PhD DSc FRCP FESC FACC, Malcolm Walker BSc MBChB MD FRCP, Suganya Sivabalasingham MBBS MRCP FRCR MD, and Arjun K. Ghosh MBBS MSc PhD FHEA FACC FESC FRCP FICOS

Advances in Lymphoma management have resulted in significant improvements in patient outcomes over the last 50 years. Despite these developments, cardiotoxicity from lymphoma treatments remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in this cohort of patients. We outlined the most common cardiotoxicities associated with lymphoma treatments and their respective investigation and management strategies, including the role of cardiac pre-assessment and late effects monitoring.

May 2004
M.D. Walker

Since both major forms of diabetes involve inadequate function of pancreatic beta cells, intensive research is ongoing to better understand how beta cells perform their complex role of secreting the hormone insulin in response to physiologic needs. Identification and characterization of pancreatic transcription factors has revealed that they play a crucial role not only in maintenance of mature beta-cell function but also at multiple stages in pancreatic development. Furthermore, recent reports have revealed their potential to convert non-beta cells into insulin-producing cells, which in some cases can function to ameliorate diabetes in experimental animals. The ability to translate these successes to the clinic will require a detailed mechanistic understanding of the molecular basis of action of these proteins. Specific gene regulation in beta cells involves the action of multiple transcription factors recruited to the promoter and functioning synergistically to activate transcription, in part through recruitment of co-activator proteins and components of the basal transcriptional machinery. In addition, the process involves modification of chromatin structure, the details of which are beginning to be elucidated. Our ability to modulate gene expression patterns may lead to developing ways to provide an unlimited supply of functional beta cells for transplantation, permitting a dramatic improvement in therapeutic options for diabetes.

May 2000
Josef Ben-Ari MD, Imad R. Makhoul MD DSc, Raymond J. Dorio MD, Sue Buckley MSc,David Warburton MD and Sharyn M. Walker

Background: Exposure of newborn animals to high concentrations of oxygen leads to diffuse alveolar damage similar to that seen in bronchopulmonary dysplasia in human infants. Therefore, neonatal rats are a suitable practical model of hyperoxic lung damage in human infants.

Objective: To determine the involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in lung injury in neonatal rats exposed to 100% O2 concentration.

Methods: A randomized controlled study was designed in which litters of term Sprague-Dawley rat pups were assigned to experimental or control groups. The pups in the experimental group were placed in 100% O2 from birth for 9 days, while the control pups were placed in room air. Twelve to 15 pups from each group were sacrificed on day 1, 3, 6, 9 and 13 after birth for bronchoalveolar lavage collection and lung histologic study. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assayed for TNFα and IL-6.

Results: Newborn rats exposed to 100% O2 for the first 9 days of life showed severe pulmonary edema and hypercellularity on days 1 and 3, which then improved to nearly complete resolution on days 6 and 9. Pulmonary TNFα was produced early on O2 exposure (day 3) and pulmonary IL-6 later (days 6 and 9).

Conclusions: Hyperoxia induces sequential production of pulmonary TNFα and IL-6, which corresponds to the severity of the pathological findings and the known inflammatory and anti-inflammatory role of these cytokines.

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TNFα= tumor necrosis factor-alpha

IL-6= interleukin-6

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