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עמוד בית
Mon, 26.02.24

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January 2023
Alina Weissmann-Brenner MD, Vered Yulzari MD, Eran Kassif MD, Michal Zajicek MD

Background: Advances in examination techniques have improved routine assessment of non-gynecological structures in the pelvis.

Objectives: To describe the sonographic features of incidental urological abnormalities found during gynecological transvaginal ultrasound.

Methods: A retrospective descriptive analysis of patients who underwent gynecological ultrasound and were diagnosed with urologic findings was performed. The sonographic features of the findings including size, echogenicity, and vascularity were examined.

Results: Gynecological ultrasound diagnosed urological findings in nine women. Two had primary neoplasms of the urinary bladder, one had metastases to the urinary bladder, one had polyps in the distal ureters, four presented with calculus in the distal ureters (one of them was 19 weeks pregnant), and one showed diverticulum of the urethra. At presentation five women (56%) had urinary complaints. Two patients (22%) with abdominal pain with distal ureteral calculi had normal transabdominal ultrasound targeted to the urinary system prior to the gynecological sonography.

Conclusions: Transvaginal ultrasound is useful in the diagnosis of urological abnormalities, mainly in the urinary bladder and the distal ureters. We suggest adding transvaginal assessment for female patients with urinary complains in whom transabdominal ultrasound of urinary system was unremarkable.

January 2022
Muhamad Abu Ahmed MD, Wasiem Abu Nasra MD, Ali Safadi MD, Alexander Visoky MD, Ibrahim Elias MD, and Ran Katz MD

Background: Ureteroscopy is becoming the primary treatment for ureteral stones. As a standard of care, ureteroscopy is performed under the supervision of fluoroscopy. Recent advances in endourological technology make the need for fluoroscopy questionable.

Objectives: To summarize our experience with a no-fluoroscopy technique for selected cases of ureteral stones.

Methods: Patients were considered suitable for fluoroless ureteroscopy if they had one or two non-impacted stones, in any location in the ureter, 5–10 mm size, with a normal contralateral renal unit and no urinary tract infection. Procedures were performed using rigid scopes, nitinol baskets/forceps for stone retrieval, and Holmium:YAG laser for lithotripsy. Stents were placed per surgeon's decision.

Results: During an 18-month period, 103 patients underwent fluoroless ureteroscopy. In 94 patients stones were removed successfully. In six, the stones were pushed to the kidney and treated successfully on a separate session by shock wave lithotripsy. In three patients no stone was found in the ureter. In five patients, miniature perforations in the ureter were noted and an indwelling double J stent was placed.

Conclusions: Fluoroless ureteroscopy resulted in a high rate of success. We believe that in selected cases it can be used with minimal adverse events

October 2021
Benita Knox MD, Charlotte Reddington MBBS FRANZCOG, Martin Healey MBBS MD FRANZCOG FRCOG, Uri Dior MD MPH, and Claudia Cheng MBBS DIP OBS FRANZCOG
April 2015
Dorit E. Zilberman MD, Uri Rimon MD, Roy Morag MD, Harry Z. Winkler MD, Jacob Ramon MD and Yoram Mor MD

Abstract

Background: Iatrogenic ureteral injury may be seen following abdominopelvic surgeries. While ureteral injuries identified during surgery should be immediately and surgically repaired, those that are postoperatively diagnosed may be treated non-surgically by draining the ipsilateral kidney. Data regarding the outcome of this approach are still missing.

Objectives: To evaluate the success rates of non-surgical management of ureteral injuries diagnosed following abdominopelvic surgeries.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the files of all patients treated for iatrogenic ureteral injuries diagnosed following abdominopelvic surgeries. Patients' ipsilateral kidney was percutaneously drained following diagnosis of injury by either nephrostomy tube (NT)/nephro-ureteral stent (NUS) or double-J stent (DJS) inserted retrogradely. The tube was left in place until a pyelogram confirmed healing or a conservative approach was abandoned due to failure.

Results: Twenty-nine patients were identified as having ureteral injury following abdominopelvic surgery. Median time from injury to renal drainage was 9 days, interquartile range (IQR) 4–17 days. Seven cases (24%) had surgical repair. Among the other 22 patients, in 2 oncology patients the conservative approach was maintained although renal drainage failed to resolve the injury. In the remaining 20, median drainage length was 60 days (IQR 43.5–85). Calculated overall success rates following renal drainage was 69% (18/29), and with NS approached 78.5%.

Conclusions: Ureteral injuries diagnosed following abdominopelvic surgeries can be treated conservatively. Ipsilateral renal drainage should be the first line of treatment before surgical repair, and NUS may be the preferred drainage to obtain spontaneous ureteral healing. 

September 2014
George Mogilner MD, Ofer Nativ MD and Sarel Halachmi MD
March 2008
August 2005
D. Leibovici, A. Cooper, A. Lindner, R. Ostrowsky, J. Kleinmann, S. Velikanov, H. Cipele, E. Goren and Y.I. Siegel
 Background: Stents offer a simple and effective drainage method for the upper urinary tract. However, ureteral stents are associated with frequent side effects, including irritative voiding symptoms and hematuria.

Objectives: To determine the side effects associated with ureteral stents and their impact on sexual function and quality of life.

Methods: Symptom questionnaires were administered to 135 consecutive patients with unilateral ureteral stents. The questionnaire addressed irritative voiding symptoms, flank pain, hematuria, fever, loss of labor days, anxiety, sleep impairment, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, dyspareunia, painful ejaculation, and a subjective overall impact on quality of life. The items were graded from 1 (minimal or no symptoms) to 5 (maximal symptoms). The patients were seen and questionnaires filled at 2 weekly intervals following stent insertion until stent extraction. Following removal of the stent, stent patency, impaction and migration rates were determined. Admissions to hospital and ancillary procedures to retreive stents were noted.

Results: The findings presented refer to questionnaire items scoring 3 or more. Dysuria, urinary frequency and urgency were reported by 40%, 50% and 55% of the patients, respectively. Flank pain, gross hematuria or fever was reported by 32%, 42% and 15% respectively. Among working patients, 45% lost at least 2 labor days during the first 14 days, and 32% were still absent from work by day 30. A total of 435 labor days were lost in the first month. Anxiety and sleep disturbance were reported by 24% and 20% respectively, and 45% of patients reported impairment in their quality of life. Decreased libido was reported by 45%, and sexual dysfunction by 42% of men and 86% of women. Stent removal necessitated ureteroscpoy in 14 patients (10.5%), due to upward migration in 11 (8.2%) and incrustration and impaction in 3. Spontaneous stent expulsion occurred in one patient. Forty-six (34%) stents were obstructed at the time of removal. Obstructed stents were associated with a longer mean dwell time as compared to the whole population, 75 versus 62 days respectively (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Ureteral stents are associated with frequent side effects and significantly impact on patient quality of life. Our findings should be considered when deciding on ureteral stent insertion and dwell time.

July 2005
A. Nadu, Y. Mor, J. Chen, M. Sofer, J. Golomb and J. Ramon

Background: Data during the last decade show that laparoscopic nephrectomy is becoming an accepted and advantageous minimally invasive alternative to the open procedure.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and reproducibility of laparoscopic nephrectomy in a series of 110 consecutive procedures.

Methods: A total of 110 patients underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy in our institution during the last 3 years. Their data were entered into a database and analyzed, including age, gender, indications for surgery, operative time, blood loss, intraoperative complications, conversion rates, and postoperative complications (defined as complications occurring up to 1 month after surgery). Histologic results and outpatient follow-up were also recorded.

Results: Mean age at surgery was 63 years (range 21–89 years). The indications for surgery included solid renal masses in 64 cases, non-functioning kidneys in 35, and collecting system or ureteral tumors in 11; and the procedures performed were radical nephrectomy, simple nephrectomy, or nephroureterectomy, respectively. The mean operative time was 125 minutes (range 70–310 minutes). Intraoperative complications were recorded in eight cases (7.3%), including vascular injuries of the renal artery in two, and of the renal vein, inferior vena cava and right adrenal vein in one case each. Injury of the large bowel and splenic hylus was recorded in one case and malfunction of the vascular endoGIA stapler leading to severe bleeding in one case. Nine cases were converted to open surgery (8.2%), four of them urgently due to intraoperative complications, while in another five cases conversions were elective following poor progression of the laparoscopic procedure. Comparison of the complication rate at follow-up between the initial 50 and the last 60 patients revealed no change. The conversion rate dropped significantly along the learning curve with 7 cases converted among the initial 50 patients, versus 2 in the last 60. There was no perioperative mortality. In two cases we recorded major postoperative complications, including pneumothorax treated by insertion of a thoracic drain and incarcerated inguinal hernia treated by surgery, while minor complications were seen in five patients. Histologic examination showed renal cell carcinoma pT1-T3a in 62 patients, oncocytoma in 5, transitional cell carcinoma T1G2-T3G3N1 in 10, renal sarcoma in 1, metastasis from lung tumor in 1, and end-stage kidney in the remainder. Negative margins were obtained in all cases.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic nephrectomy may be currently considered a routine, safe and effective procedure associated with minimal morbidity. The conversion rate seemed to drop significantly after 50 cases. In view of the inherent benefits for patients, in terms of reduced pain level, faster recovery and improved cosmetic results, the laparoscopic approach has become the standard approach for nephrectomy in our institution. 

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