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עמוד בית
Wed, 28.02.24

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November 2000
Oded Szold MD, Avi A. Weinbroum MD, Ron Ben-Abraham MD, Talma E. Englender MD, Dror Ovadia MD and Patrick Sorkine MD

Background: Tumor necrosis factor is associated with various local and systemic inflammatory sequelae following snakebite. Xanthine oxidase is a principal mediator of remote tissue injury (e.g., lungs, heart, liver).

Objective: To investigate in a snakebite-like animal model the as yet unexplored role of TNF and XO in mediating organ damage following snakebite.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intramuscularly with a non-lethal 500 g/kg dose of Vipera aspis venom (n=10) or saline (n=10). Blood pressure and heart rate were continuously monitored, TNF- was measured in the blood, and total XO + xanthine dehydrogenase activity was assessed in various tissues. Lung histology and permeability indices were analyzed.

Results: Venom injection caused a significant (P0.05) reduction in both heart rate and invasive arterial pressure. The blood circulating TNF levels were significantly higher in the intoxicated group (P0.05 vs. saline group), with changes seen at 30 minutes from intoxication in both groups. Total XO + XDH activity in the kidney, lung and liver of the venom-injected group was significantly (P0.05) higher than in the saline group, while the activity in the heart was similar.

Conclusions: The mediation of remote organ and hemodynamic changes following intramuscular injection of a non-lethal dose of Vipera aspis venom can be attributed partly to TNF and partly to XO. More research is needed to better understand the role of either compound and the time frame of their activity before specific antagonists can be introduced for snakebite management.

May 2000
Josef Ben-Ari MD, Imad R. Makhoul MD DSc, Raymond J. Dorio MD, Sue Buckley MSc,David Warburton MD and Sharyn M. Walker

Background: Exposure of newborn animals to high concentrations of oxygen leads to diffuse alveolar damage similar to that seen in bronchopulmonary dysplasia in human infants. Therefore, neonatal rats are a suitable practical model of hyperoxic lung damage in human infants.

Objective: To determine the involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in lung injury in neonatal rats exposed to 100% O2 concentration.

Methods: A randomized controlled study was designed in which litters of term Sprague-Dawley rat pups were assigned to experimental or control groups. The pups in the experimental group were placed in 100% O2 from birth for 9 days, while the control pups were placed in room air. Twelve to 15 pups from each group were sacrificed on day 1, 3, 6, 9 and 13 after birth for bronchoalveolar lavage collection and lung histologic study. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assayed for TNFα and IL-6.

Results: Newborn rats exposed to 100% O2 for the first 9 days of life showed severe pulmonary edema and hypercellularity on days 1 and 3, which then improved to nearly complete resolution on days 6 and 9. Pulmonary TNFα was produced early on O2 exposure (day 3) and pulmonary IL-6 later (days 6 and 9).

Conclusions: Hyperoxia induces sequential production of pulmonary TNFα and IL-6, which corresponds to the severity of the pathological findings and the known inflammatory and anti-inflammatory role of these cytokines.



TNFα= tumor necrosis factor-alpha

IL-6= interleukin-6

April 2000
Ella Zeltzer MD, Jacques Bernheim MD, Ze’ev Korzets MB BSc,, Doron Zeeli PhD, Mauro Rathaus MD, Yoseph A. Mekori MD and Rami Hershkoviz MD

Background: Cell-mediated immunity is impaired in uremia. Cell-matrix interactions of immune cells such as CD4+T lymphocytes with extracellular matrix are an important requirement for an intact immune response. The adherence of CD4+T cells of healthy subjects (normal T cells) to ECM components is inhibited in the presence of uremic serum. Such decreased adhesive capacity is also found in T cells of dialysis patients. Various chemokines and cytokines affect the attachment of CD4+T cells to ECM.

Objective: To evaluate chemokine (MIP-1β and RANTES) and tumor necrosis factor α-induced adhesion of CD4+T cells to ECM in a uremic milieu.

Methods: We examined adhesion of normal CD4+T cells (resting and activated) to intact ECM in response to soluble or bound chemokines (MIP-1β and RANTES) and to TNF-α following incubation in uremic versus normal serum. Thereafter, we evaluated the adhesion of resting CD4+T cells from dialysis patients in a similar fashion and compared it to that obtained from a healthy control group.

Results: Addition of uremic serum diminished soluble and anchored chemokine-induced attachment of normal resting and activated CD4+T cells to ECM compared to a normal milieu (a peak response of 10–11% vs. 24–29% for soluble chemokines, P<0.001; 12–13% vs. 37–39% for bound chemokines on resting cells, P<0.01; and 18–20% vs. 45–47% for bound chemokines on activated cells, P<0.02). The same pattern of response was noted following stimulation with immobilized TNF-α (7 vs. 12% for resting cells, P<0.05; 17 vs. 51% for activated cells, P<0.01).  Adherence of dialysis patients’ cells to ECM following stimulation with both bound chemokines was reduced compared to control T cells (15–17% vs. 25–32%, P<0.0000). In contrast, adherence following stimulation by TNF-α was of equal magnitude.

Conclusions: Abnormal adhesive capacity of T lymphocytes to ECM in uremia may, in part, be related to a diminished response to MIP-1β, RANTES and TNF-α. However, whereas reduced adhesion to chemokines was present in both normal CD4+T cells in a uremic environment and in dialysis patients’ T cells, TNF-α-induced adhesion was found to be inhibited only in normal cells in a uremic milieu.


ECM = extracellular matrix

TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor-a

February 2000
Yehuda Nofech-Mozes MD, Yael Yuhas PhD, Elisabeth Kaminsky MSc, Abraham Weizman MD and Shai Ashkenazi MD MSc

Background: The pathogenesis of neurological symptoms, the most common extraintestinal complication ofchildhood shigellosis, is unclear. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we developed an animal model and demonstrated that TNF alpha and IL-1 beta play a role.

Objectives: To determine whether TNF alpha and IL-1 beta genes are expressed in the brain following peripheral administration of Shigella dysenteriae 60R.

Methods: Expression of mRNA for TNF alpha and IL-1 beta was examined in the brain structures (hypothalamus and hippocampus) and peripheral organs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, at different time points after intraperitoneal injection of S. dysenteriae sonicate.

Results: In our animal model of Shigella related seizures, TNF alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA were induced in the brain, spleen and liver already 1 hour after injection of S. dysenteriae sonicate. The expression of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA in spleen, hippocampus and hypothalamus decreased after 6 h and increased again at 18 h post-injection.

Conclusions: Local production of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta in the brain may be involved in the enhanced seizure response of mice after administration of S. dysenteriae. It is possible that intracerebral production of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta plays a role in neurological disturbances of human shigellosis.

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