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עמוד בית
Fri, 01.12.23

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January 2017
Boris Knyazer MD, Jenna Smolar MD, Isaak Lazar MD, Eli Rosenberg MD, Erez Tsumi MD, Tova Lifshitz MD and Jaime Levy MD

The identification and prompt diagnosis of Horner syndrome (HS) is essential for preventing permanent damage. HS may arise when a lesion presents anywhere along the three-neuron oculosympathetic pathway that begins at the posterior-lateral nuclei of the hypothalamus all the way through to the orbit. We present four cases and review the literature to familiarize the reader with the identification, diagnosis and treatment of Horner syndrome. The four patients, three adults and one child, were followed for at least 6 months following the initial diagnosis (range 6–18 months). There was partial resolution in three of the four cases, while the fourth resolved completely. There are numerous causes of HS, some of them iatrogenic. While iatrogenic cases of HR are rare in both adults and children, HS is seen more often following surgical procedures. Prompt recognition of the syndrome and correction of the offending agent may prevent permanent damage to the neuronal pathway. It is therefore recommended that practitioners be aware of the risks for development of iatrogenic HS and the signs for early detection.

March 2013
B. Knyazer, N. Bilenko, J. Levy, T. Lifshitz, N. Belfair, I. Klemperer and R. Yagev
 Background: Open globe injury (OGI) is a common cause of unilateral visual loss in all age groups.

Objectives: To describe and identify clinical characteristics, prognostic factors and visual outcome in a group of patients with OGI in southern Israel.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all cases of OGI examined in the ophthalmology department at Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel, from 1996 to 2005. A total of 118 eyes with OGI were detected and analyzed statistically. We recorded demographic data, cause of injury, initial visual acuity (VA), associated globe morbidity and injuries, Ocular Trauma Score (OTS), surgical procedures, postoperative complications, and final VA.

Results: The mean age of the study group was 36.1 years and included 84% males. The median follow-up was 13.3 months (range 6–66 months). The annual incidence of open globe injuries was 3.1 cases/100,000. In 84 cases (71%) the mechanism of open eye injury was laceration. Most of the injuries were work related (45%). Bilateral injury was observed in two patients. An intraocular foreign body was observed in 45 eyes (38%). Primary surgical repair was performed in 114 eyes. Six patients (5.1%) had complications with post-traumatic endophthalmitis and 12 patients (10.1%) underwent evisceration or enucleation. Clinical signs associated with poor visual outcomes included reduced initial VA, eyelid injury, and retinal detachment at presentation.

Conclusions: In our study population the most important prognostic factors in open globe injury were initial VA, eyelid injury and retinal detachment.


August 2011
B. Knyazer, J. Levy, E. Rosenberg, T. Lifshitz and I. Lazar
March 2011
J. Levy, T. Lifshitz, D. Goldfarb, B. Knyazer and N. Belfair

Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of adult blindness and accounts for about 10% of cases of legal blindness in Israel. Only about half of the patients with diabetes in Israel have regular eye examinations.

Objectives: To evaluate, for the first time in southern Israel, a new service for diabetic retinopathy screening that uses a mobile non-mydriatic mobile fundus camera in primary care patients.

Methods: Diabetic members of the largest health fund in southern Israel and over 18 years old were invited for non-mydriatic fundus examination between January and October 2009. Screening was performed by a trained photographer using the Topcon TRC NW-6S non-mydriatic camera in nine primary care centers.

Results: A total of 4318 diabetic patients were screened, of whom 53% were classified as normal. The incidence of diabetic retinopathy was 15.8% (1.2% had proliferative retinopathy and 2.4% had suspected macular edema and were referred for laser treatment). Other possible sight-threatening conditions were detected in 9.3%. Fundus pictures were inadequate for assessment in 16% of cases.

Conclusions: Diabetic retinopathy screening with a mobile non-mydriatic fundus camera improved the quality of care for diabetic patients in southern Israel. This screening method identified patients requiring prompt referral to the ophthalmologist for further complete eye examination. Extending this screening program to other areas in the country should be considered.

May 2005
T. Monos, J. Levy, T. Lifshitz and M. Puterman
 Patients with silent sinus syndrome typically present for investigation of facial asymmetry. Unilateral, spontaneous enophthalmos and hypoglobus are the prominent findings at examination. Imaging of the orbit and sinuses characteristically show unilateral maxillary sinus opacification and collapse with inferior bowing of the orbital floor. It has been suggested that SSS[1] is due to hypoventilation of the maxillary sinus secondary to ostial obstruction and sinus atelectasis with chronic negative pressure within the sinus. Treatment involves functional endoscopic sinus surgery for reestablishing a functional drainage passage, and a reconstructive procedure of the floor of the orbit for repairing the hypoglobus and cosmetic deformity. Ophthalmologists, otorhinolaryngologists, and radiologists must be familiarized with this relatively newly reported disease.

[1] SSS = silent sinus syndrome

April 2005
November 2004
J. Levy, M. Puterman, T. Lifshitz, M. Marcus, A. Segal and T. Monos

Background: In patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy, orbital decompression surgery is indicated for compressive optic neuropathy, severe corneal exposure, or for cosmetic deformity due to proptosis. Traditionally this has been performed through a transantral approach, but the associated complication rate is high. More recently, endoscopic orbital decompression has been performed successfully with significantly fewer postoperative complications.

Objective: To report our experience of endoscopic orbital decompression in patients with severe Graves’ ophthalmopathy.

Methods: Three patients (five eyes) underwent endoscopic orbital decompression for Graves’ ophthalmopathy at Soroka Medical Center between the years 2000 and 2002. The indications for surgery were compressive optic neuropathy in three eyes, severe corneal exposure in one eye, and severe proptosis not cosmetically acceptable for the patient in one case. An intranasal endoscopic approach with the removal of the medial orbital wall and medial part of the floor was performed.

Results: In all five eyes an average reduction of 5 mm in proptosis was achieved. Soon after surgery, visual acuity improved in the three cases with compressive optic neuropathy, and exposure keratopathy and cosmetic appearance improved. The diplopia remained unchanged. No complications were observed postoperatively.

Conclusions: Endoscopic orbital decompression with removal of the medial orbital wall and medial part of the floor in the five reported eyes was an effective and safe procedure for treatment of severe Graves’ ophthalmopathy. A close collaboration between ophthalmologists and otorhinolaryngologists skilled in endoscopic sinus surgery is crucial for the correct management of these patients.

September 2004
J. Levy, T. Monos, J. Kapelushnik, E. Maor, M. Nash and T. Lifshitz

Histiocytosis of childhood is characterized by localized or generalized proliferation of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system and the dendritic cell system. In patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis, the orbita is the most involved site encountered in ophthalmic practice, usually as a lytic lesion in the zygomaticofrontal suture. Patients usually present with acute or chronic periorbital swelling. Electron microscopic findings of Birbeck granules and positive staining for CD1 antigenic determinant confirm the diagnosis.

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