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עמוד בית
Thu, 18.07.24

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December 2023
Ehud Galron MD, Rayna Boyarsky MD, Ido Solt MD, Chen Ben David MD, Eyal Gal MD

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-based reaction to dietary gluten. CD can present with a diverse array of symptoms. Many CD patients have no symptoms at all. Thus, a great number of atypical cases of CD remain undiagnosed, leading to a risk of long-term complications. Some atypical symptoms of CD such as pregnancy complications, infertility, recurrent abortions, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and severe preeclampsia have been investigated in undiagnosed and diagnosed pregnant women with CD. Nutrient deficiency and autoimmune pathogenic mechanisms have been hypothesized to be the explanation of these adverse pregnancy outcomes. Recently, an association between obstetric complications and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies titers in women with CD has been reported. While the adverse effects of CD on the reproductive system are well investigated, there are only a few reports in the literature on the effect of pregnancy and puerperium on CD. We reviewed the published literature on the adverse effects and pathophysiology of CD in reproductive disorders and the effect of pregnancy and puerperium on the manifestation of CD.

May 2023
Ola Gutzeit MD MSc, Zvi Millo MD, Naftali Justman MD, Natali Constantinescu MD, Ido Solt MD

Background: Uterine tachysystole during labor can lead to a decrease in fetal oxygen saturation and intracerebral oxygen saturation. Acute tocolysis using atosiban can inhibit uterine smooth muscle activity, potentially improving fetal status and facilitating vaginal delivery or allowing time to prepare for operative delivery.

Objectives: To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in cesarean and vaginal deliveries following atosiban administration during fetal prolonged deceleration and tachysystole at gestational age 37 0/7 to 43 0/7 weeks.

Methods: We conducted a single-center, descriptive retrospective cohort study at a large tertiary referral center.

Results: Of the 275 patients treated with atosiban, 186 (68%) delivered vaginally (either spontaneous delivery or instrumental delivery) and 89 (32%) underwent a cesarean delivery. In a univariate analysis, cesarean delivery was associated with higher body mass index (27.9 ± 4.3 vs. 30.2 ± 4.8, P = 0.003). Second stage atosiban administration was associated with vaginal delivery (89.3% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.01). Cesarean delivery was associated with lower Apgar at 1 and 5 minutes and a higher rate of neonatal intensive care unit admissions. The incidence of PPH among women treated with atosiban in our study (2.3–4.3%) was higher than the incidence reported in the literature (1–3%)  

Conclusions: Atosiban may be an effective acute intervention for non-reassuring fetal heart rate during tachysystole, increasing the rate of vaginal delivery and potentially reducing the need for cesarean delivery. However, the potential risk of postpartum hemorrhage should be taken into consideration.

March 2023
Yoav Siegler MD, Chen Ben David MD, Zeev Weiner MD, Ido Solt MD

Late, preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) presents a major obstetrical challenge balancing between iatrogenic prematurity and risk of prolonged rupture of membranes. In recent years, the pendulum has been shifting toward expectant management until gestation week 37 + 0. We examined the latest guidelines and major trials and summarized optimal management. We addressed the major dilemmas of women with PPROM during gestation weeks 34 + 0 to 36 + 6.

September 2020
Naftali Justman MD, Gilad Shahak MD, Ola Gutzeit MD, Dikla Ben Zvi MD, Yuval Ginsberg MD, Ido Solt MD, Dana Vitner MD, Ron Beloosesky MD, Zeev Weiner MD and Yaniv Zipori MD

Background: The World Health Organization classified coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) as a pandemic and recommends strict restrictions regarding most aspects of daily activities.

Objectives: To evaluate whether the pandemic has changed the prenatal care and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women without COVID-19.

Methods: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to describe changes in outpatient clinic visits and to compare the rates of cesarean and instrumental deliveries between two periods of time: March–April 2020 (during the COVID-19 outbreak) with March–April of the preceding year, 2019.

Results: During the COVID-19 outbreak, visits to obstetric triage, gynecologic triage, high-risk clinic, and ultrasound units decreased by 36.4%, 34.7%, 32.8%, and 18.1%, respectively. The medical center experienced a 17.8% drop in the total number of births (610 births) compared with March and April 2019 (742 births). During the outbreak women were more likely to be nulliparous (33.3% vs. 27.6%, P = 0.02) and present with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (7.5% vs. 4%, P = 0.005) or gestational diabetes (13% vs. 10%, P = 0.03). More epidural analgesia was used (83.1% vs. 77.1%, P = 0.006). There were more operative vaginal deliveries during the outbreak (16.7% vs. 6.8%, P = 0.01). All other maternal and neonatal outcomes were comparable between the two periods.

Conclusions: The medical facility experienced a major decline in all aspects of the routine obstetrics activities during the time of the pandemic. The higher rate of operative vaginal deliveries among nulliparous may be associated with the pandemic effect on the rate of high-risk patients

August 2019
January 2019
Chen Ben David MD , Zeev Weiner MD and Ido Solt MD

The use of ultrasound endovaginal probes is common practice in the fields of gynecology and obstetrics. The vagina serves as a host environment for many microorganisms, contributing greatly to its defensive mechanisms. It is not known whether the introduction of other microorganisms into the vaginal region are detrimental or require intensive preventative measures. Several national ultrasonography societies, as well as the Israel Ministry of Health, have addressed the proper and adequate handling of sonographic endovaginal probes, including the use of high-level disinfecting agents following cleansing and prior to using probe covers between patients. However, many obstetrics and gynecology ultrasound units in Israel find it difficult to adhere to these strict disinfecting requirements. While most of the guidelines are based on the theoretical risk of contaminations when ultrasound endovaginal probes are used, the rate of nosocomial infections linked to the use of these probes has yet to be verified. Based on the information available, there is an urgent need to find a solution that enables gynecological ultrasound users to properly disinfect endovaginal probes between patients. Currently, it is almost impossible to pragmatically adhere to the Israel Ministry of Health guidelines. 

July 2018
Yeela Ben Naftali MD, Irit Chermesh MD, Ido Solt MD, Yolanda Friedrich MD and Lior Lowenstein MD

Background: Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG) has been associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and their offspring.

Objectives: To compare the achievement of recommended GWG and lifestyle factors in women with high-risk versus normal-risk pregnancies.

Methods: Pregnant women hospitalized in a gynecological and obstetrics department and pregnant women who arrived at a community clinic for a routine checkup were interviewed and completed questionnaires relating to weight gain and lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, diet, exercise). Recommended GWG was defined by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).

Results: GWG higher than ACOG recommendations was reported by 52/92 women (57%) with normal pregnancies and by 43/86 (50%) with high-risk pregnancies. On univariate analysis, characteristics associated with greater GWG were: current or past smoking, age > 40 years, pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2, low fruit intake, and high snack intake. High-risk pregnancies were associated with pre-gestational BMI > 25 kg/m2 (48% vs. 27%, P = 0.012), consumption of vitamins (84% vs. 63%, P = 0.001), avoidance of certain foods (54% vs. 21%, P = 0.015), receiving professional nutritionist consultation (65% vs. 11%, P = 0.001), and less physical activity (9% vs. 24%, P = 0.01).

Conclusions: A minority of pregnant women met the recommended GWG. No difference was noted between normal and high-risk pregnancies. High-risk population tended to have a less healthy lifestyle. Counseling to follow a healthy, balanced diet should be recommended, regardless of pregnancy risk, with particular attention to women at high risk of extra weight gain.

May 2018
David Peleg MD, Yechiel Z. Burke MD, Ido Solt MD and Menachem Fisher MD

Cesarean section has undergone a transformation that has radically changed the prognosis of both the pregnant woman and her unborn child. The attributed mortality rate of Cesarean section during the 19th century was over 50% worldwide. Today, mortality from Cesarean delivery is rare. However, the technique of transversely incising the uterus in its lower uterine segment, although less than a century old, is passed on from instructor to apprentice, often without either of them being aware of its noble history. In this brief review, we discuss the reported history regarding this incision and the significant role played by John Munro Kerr.

May 2017
Yeela Ben Naftali MD, Ido Solt MD, Lior Lowenstein MD and Irit Chermesh MD

Background: Both high and insufficient weight gain during pregnancy have been associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and their offspring.

Objectives: To describe self-reported weight gain during pregnancy, assess the concurrence of this weight gain with issued recommendations, and investigate associations between lifestyle factors and weight gain.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 109 pregnant women hospitalized in one gynecological and obstetrics department completed questionnaires related to weight gain and lifestyle factors such as smoking, diet and exercise. Recommended weight gain was defined by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and was compatible with the Ministry of Health guidelines in Israel.

Results: Fifty-three (49%) participants reported weight gain above the recommendation, 31 (28%) met the recommendations and 25 (23%) reported weight gain below the recommendations. Characteristics associated with high weight gain included past smoking and/or age above 36 years and/or body mass index (BMI) above 25 kg/m2. Only 34 women (31%) reported seeking professional nutritional counseling during pregnancy. An increased tendency to consult a nutritionist was reported among diabetic women.

Conclusion: Only a minority of women gained the recommended weight during pregnancy. High BMI and/or a history of smoking and/or older age were associated with weight gain above recommendations. Particular effort should be directed toward counseling women at high risk of weight gain during pregnancy.

January 2017
Eliezer Bronshtein, Ido Solt MD, Moshe Bronshtein MD, Ayala Gover MD, Igal Wolman MD and Zeev Blumenfeld MD

Background: Early prenatal ultrasound is an important part of prenatal screening in Israel. No studies have described the rate of trisomy 21 [T21] identification at 14–17 weeks gestation.

Objectives: To describe the rate of T21 identification by transvaginal sonograms (TVS) at 14–17 weeks gestation. 

Methods: We conducted a historical prospective study. Since 1986, early TVS of 72,000 fetuses at 14–17 weeks gestation have been prospectively recorded together with prenatal screening data at a private ultrasound center (AL-KOL, Haifa). We calculated the fraction of T21 cases by dividing the total number of cases with abnormal sonographic findings by the total number of diagnosed T21 cases. We also examined the percentage of verified T21 cases that had completely normal prenatal screening tests prior to the early prenatal TVS, thus revealing the contribution of this examination to the existing prenatal screening. Fisher’s exact test was used to calculate odds ratios for each sonographic marker. 

Results: Of 137 T21 fetuses, 123 had sonographic markers on early TVS, yielding a prediction capability of at least 89.87%. Of all T21 cases, 14% had completely normal nuchal translucency/first-trimester screening prior to the abnormal 14–17 week TVS findings. Isolated abnormal sonographic findings, which were found to increase the risk for T21, were common atrioventricular septal canal (odds ratio 88.88), duodenal atresia (OR 88.23), nuchal edema (OR 39.14), and hydrocephalus (OR 15.78). Fetal hydronephrosis/pyelectasis was non-significant when isolated (OR 1), and cardiac echogenic focus was associated with a decreased risk (OR 0.13).

Conclusions: Early prenatal TVS at 14–17 weeks may identify almost 90% of T21 and adds 14% to the identification rate at the first-trimester screening.


November 2015
Menachem Fisher MD, Izhar ben Shlomo MD, Ido Solt MD and Yechiel Z. Burke MD

We present an overview of the current sexual behavior of adolescents in Israel, including the related social and moral issues, and compare it to that in Western countries. An important factor is the existence of liberal versus conservative views regarding the use of contraception and termination of pregnancy in these young subjects. We describe the current situation where in most cases the medical providers do not provide adequate contraceptive advice to adolescent girls, resulting ultimately in a high rate of unintended pregnancy. In our opinion, it is essential to make effective contraception more accessible to this vulnerable group.

December 2012
R. Laczik, Z. Galajda, H. Dér, J. Végh, G. Kerekes, Z. Szekanecz, P. Soltész and E. Szomják
March 2011
G. Kerekes, P. Soltész, G. Szűcs, S. Szamosi, H. Dér, Z. Szabó, L. Csáthy, A. Váncsa, P. Szodoray, G. Szegedi and Z. Szekanecz

Background: Increased cardiovascular morbidity has become a leading cause of mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) inhibitors may influence flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT) and arterial stiffness indicated by pulse-wave velocity (PWV) in RA.

Objectives: To assess the effects of adalimumab treatment on FMD[1], ccIMT[2] and PWV[3] in early RA[4].

Methods: Eight RA patients with a disease duration ≤ 1 year received 40 mg adalimumab subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Ultrasound was used to assess brachial FMD and ccIMT. PWV was determined by arteriograph. These parameters were correlated with C-reacive protein, vonWillebrand factor (vWF), immunoglobulin M (IgM)-rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-CCP levels and 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28).

Results: Adalimumab therapy successfully ameliorated arthritis as it decreased CRP[5] levels (P = 0.04) and DAS28[6] (P < 0.0001). Endothelial function (FMD) improved in comparison to baseline (P < 0.05). ccIMT decreased after 24 weeks, indicating a mean 11.9% significant improvement (P = 0.002). Adalimumab relieved arterial stiffness (PWV) after 24 weeks. Although plasma vWF[7] levels decreased only non-significantly after 12 weeks of treatment, an inverse correlation was found between FMD and vWF (R = -0.643, P = 0.007). FMD also inversely correlated with CRP (R = -0.596, P = 0.015). CRP and vWF also correlated with each other (R = 0.598, P = 0.014). PWV and ccIMT showed a positive correlation (R = 0.735, P = 0.038).

Conclusions: Treatment with adalimumab exerted favorable effects on disease activity and endothelial dysfunction. It also ameliorated carotid atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in patients with early RA. Early adalimumab therapy may have an important role in the prevention and management of vascular comorbidity in RA.

[1] FMD = flow-mediated vasodilation

[2] ccIMT = common carotid intima-media thickness

[3] PWV = pulse-wave velocity

[4] RA = rheumatoid arthritis

[5] CRP = C-reactive protein

[6] DAS28 = 28-joint Disease Activity Score

[7] vWF = vonWillebrand factor

January 2008
A. Kapitany, Z. Szabo, G. Lakos, N. Aleksza, A. Vegvari. L. Soos, Z. Karanyi, S. Sipka, G. Szgedi and Z. Szekanecz

Background: The presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibody is highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis. Certain HLA-DR4 (HLA-DRB1*04) alleles, also known as the "shared epitope," are associated with increased susceptibility to RA[1]. In addition, these alleles may also have relevance for disease outcome. Anti-CCP[2] antibody positivity has been associated with the presence of HLA-DR4 alleles in patients with RA. However, there is little information available regarding any relationship between quantitative anti-CCP production (serum anti-CCP concentrations) and the shared epitope.

Objectives: To determine the association between anti-CCP antibody production and various HLA-DRB1 alleles.

Methods: Serum anti-CCP, rheumatoid factor and C-reactive protein levels were assessed in 53 RA patients. All these patients underwent HLA-DRB1 genotyping.

Results: Of the 53 patients 33 (62%) were positive for anti-CCP antibody. We found significant correlations between anti-CCP and RF[3] positivity (chi-square = 6.717, P < 0.01), as well as between anti-CCP and HLA-DRB1*04 positivity (chi-square = 5.828, P < 0.01). There was no correlation between RF positivity and serum levels, CRP[4] serum levels and HLA-DRB1*04 positivity. When quantitatively comparing serum anti-CCP levels with shared epitope positivity, patients carrying one or two copies of HLA-DRB1*04 alleles had significantly higher anti-CCP concentrations (530.0 ± 182.6 U/ml) compared to DRB1*04-negative patients (56.8 ± 27.4 U/ml) (P < 0.01). There was no difference in serum anti-CCP antibody concentrations between patients carrying only one HLA-DRB1*01 allele but no HLA-DRB1*04 allele (12.0 ± 8.6 U/ml) in comparison to SE[5]-negative patients (76.8 ± 56.2 U/ml). Regarding non-SE HLA-DRB1 genotypes, all 6 patients (100%) carrying DRB1*15 alleles and 6 of 7 (85%) patients carrying DRB1*13 were anti-CCP positive. In addition, patients with HLA-DRB1*13 (282.5 ± 23.8 U/ml) and DRB1*15 (398.7 ± 76.2 U/ml) produced significantly more anti-CCP than did any other non-SE HLA-DRB1 subtypes (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: There is significant association between anti-CCP and RF, as well as between anti-CCP and SE positivity in RA. In addition, the presence of one or two copies of HLA-DRB1*04 alleles has been associated with higher serum anti-CCP antibody levels. Thus, patients carrying HLA-DRB1*04 alleles exhibited an overall tenfold increase in serum anti-CCP antibody levels in comparison to HLA-DRB1*04-negative subjects. Increased anti-CCP production may also be associated with other non-SE HLA-DRB1 genotypes, such as DRB1*13 or DRB1*15. In reports by other investigators, both anti-CCP concentrations

[1] RA = rheumatoid arthritis

[2] anti-CCP = anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide

[3] RF = rheumatoid factor

[4] CRP = C-reactive protein

[5] SE = shared epitope

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