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עמוד בית
Fri, 08.12.23

Search results

June 2023
Reudor Grinberg MD, Sivan Perl MD, Itzhack Shpirer MD, Noam Natif MD, Benjamin D. Fox BM BS

Background: The DES-obstructive sleep apnea (DES-OSA) score uses morphological characteristics to predict the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).

Objectives: To validate DES-OSA scores on the Israeli population. To identify patients requiring treatment for OSAS. To evaluate whether additional parameters could improve the diagnostic value of DES-OSA scores.

Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study on patients attending a sleep clinic. Polysomnography results were examined independently by two physicians. DES-OSA scores were calculated. STOP and Epworth questionnaires were administered, and data on cardiovascular risk was extracted.

Results: We recruited 106 patients, median age 64 years, 58% male. DES-OSA scores were positively correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (P < 0.001) and were significantly different between the OSAS severity groups. Interobserver agreement for calculating DES-OSA was very high between the two physicians (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.86). DES-OSA scores ≤ 5 were associated with high sensitivity and low specificity (0.90 and 0.27, respectively) for moderate to severe OSAS. In univariate analysis, only age was significantly correlated with the presence of OSAS (OR 1.26, P = 0.01). Age older than 66 years as a single point in the DES-OSA score slightly improved the sensitivity of the test.

Conclusions: DES-OSA is a valid score based solely on physical examination, which may be useful for excluding OSAS requiring therapy. DES-OSA score ≤ 5 effectively ruled out moderate to severe OSAS. Age older than 66 years as an extra point improved the sensitivity of the test.

November 2019
Ruth Yousovich MD, Shay I. Duvdevani MD, Noga Lipschitz MD, Michael Wolf MD, Lela Migirov MD, and Arkadi Yakirevitch MD

Background: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of vertigo. It is assumed that sleep is involved in the pathogenesis of BPPV, and that habitual head-lying side during sleep correlates with the affected side in the posterior semicircular canal BPPV.

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the preferred sleeping position and the affected semicircular canal in patients with BPPV.

Methods: We performed a retrospective data review of patients seeking help for vertigo/dizziness who had undergone clinical evaluation including a Dix–Hallpike test. Patients diagnosed with posterior canal BPPV (p-BPPV) were asked to define their preferred lying side (right, left, supine, or variable) during the night sleep. Affected semicircular canal (right posterior or left posterior) was registered along with demographic data.

Results: In all, 237 patients were diagnosed with p-BPPV. Patients with horizontal semicircular canal BPPV (n=11) were excluded. Patient mean age was 57 years (range 14–87). There were 150 patients with right p-BPPV and 87 patients with left p-BPPV. Among the patients, 122 (52%) habitually slept on the right side. Of those, 102 (84%) were diagnosed with right p-BPPV (P = 0.0006), while 82 patients (34%) habitually slept on the left side. Fifty-three (65%) were diagnosed with left p-BPPV (P < 0.0001). There were no differences in right vs. left p-BPPV in the 33 patients (14%) who expressed no preference concerning their sleeping positions.

Conclusions: Our study highlights the etiology of BPPV and showed that changing sleep position habits might be helpful in preventing recurrent BPPV.

June 2019
Alex Konstantinovsky MD, Snait Tamir PhD, Giora Katz MD, Orna Tzischinsky PhD, Nina Kuchersky MD, Nava Blum PhD and Arnon Blum MD

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a syndrome associated with endothelial dysfunction, which may predict cardiovascular events in men presenting with this syndrome. It has been shown to be associated with a higher rate of acute myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality, vascular inflammation, and impaired endothelial function. In this review we present the literature findings and describe the mechanistic pathways that are known to be involved in this syndrome and its related clinical consequences.

July 2018
Yaron Haviv DMD PhD, Lilach Kamer MD, Roee Sheinfeld MD, Galit Almoznino DMD MSc MHA and Gideon Bachar MD

Background: A dental appliance for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is recommended for patients who cannot adjust to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments.

Objectives: To describe patients with extremely severe OSA who were successfully treated with a dental appliance and to compare their characteristics with the relevant literature to identify clinical features associated with a good outcome.

Methods: The clinical, management, and outcome data of three patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of > 80 who showed clinical improvement following treatment with a dental appliance were collected retrospectively from sleep laboratory reports in Israel over a period of 3 years. 

Results: The patients included one man and two women, aged 33, 56, and 61 years, respectively. The diagnosis of OSA was based on clinical examination and polysomnography. AHI values at presentation were 83, 81, and 84, respectively. Treatment with a dental appliance (Herbst® or MDSA®) was proposed due to patient noncompliance with CPAP. Follow-up polysomnography with the dental appliance revealed a reduction in the AHI to 1.7, 10.7, and 11, respectively. All patients had supine OSA and a retrognathic mandible, both of which have been found to be associated with a good prognosis for treatment with a dental appliance.

Conclusions: Dental appliances may be considered an appropriate second-choice option to treat severe OSA in patients who are noncompliant with CPAP. This study helps physicians identify patients with extremely severe OSA who are suitable for dental appliance treatment. Well-designed large-scale studies are needed to reach definitive conclusions. 

February 2017
Itay Katz, Daphna Katz, Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP and Bat Sheva Porat-Katz MD
January 2016
Haim Bassan MD, Shimrit Uliel-Sibony MD, Shlomit Katsav BSc, Mira Farber BSc and Riva Tauman MD

Background: It has been suggested that sleep disordered breathing (SDB) during pregnancy may adversely influence maternal as well as fetal well being.

Objectives: To examine the effect of maternal SDB on neonatal neurological examination and perinatal complications.

Methods: Pregnant women of singleton uncomplicated pregnancies were prospectively recruited from a community and hospital low risk obstetric surveillance. All participants completed a sleep questionnaire in the second trimester and underwent ambulatory sleep evaluation (WatchPAT, Itamar Medical, Caesarea, Israel). They were categorized as SDB (apnea hypopnea index > 5) and non-SDB. Maternal and newborn records were reviewed and a neonatal neurologic examination was conducted during the first 48 hours. 

Results: The study group included 44 women and full-term infants; 11 of the women (25%) had SDB. Mean maternal age of the SDB and non-SDB groups was 32.3 ± 2.8 and 32.5 ± 4.7 years, respectively (P = 0.86). Mean body mass index before the pregnancy in the SDB and non-SDB groups was 25.8 ± 4.7 and 22.0 ± 2.5 kg/m2, respectively (P = 0.028). No differences were found between infants born to mothers with SDB and non-SDB in birth weight (3353.8 ± 284.8 vs. 3379.1 ± 492.4 g), gestational age (39.5 ± 0.9 vs. 39.2 ± 1.5 weeks), 5 minute Apgar scores (9.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.9 ± 0.3), and neurologic examination scores (95.2 ± 3.9 vs. 94.6 ± 4.1). P value for all was not significant. 

Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that maternal mild SDB during pregnancy has no adverse effect on neonatal neurologic examination or on perinatal complications. 


August 2015
Rafael S. Carel MD DrPH, Inna Brodsky MPH and Giora Pillar MD MPH

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common health problem with an estimated prevalence of 4% among men, many of whom are undiagnosed and untreated. 

Objectives: To compare demographic characteristics, health profiles, risk factors, and disease severity in Arab and Jewish men with OSA syndrome.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study we retrospectively analyzed clinical data from the medical files of men ≥ 22 years old who were referred to the Rambam Medical Center sleep clinic during the period 2001–2009 with a suspected diagnosis of OSA. OSA severity was measured using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square test. Relations between OSA severity and a set of independent risk factors were assessed by linear regression analysis.

Results: A total of 207 men were included (39 Arabs, 19%; 168 Jews, 81%). Arab participants were younger than their Jewish counterparts (45.5 ± 8.9 years vs. 49.8 ± 11.8, P = 0.04) and their body mass index (BMI) was higher (33.1 ± 5.1 vs. 30.0 ± 4.4, P = 0.001). OSA severity (AHI score) was higher among Arab men, with low, medium and high severity scores seen in 10%, 33% and 56% of Arab men vs 35%, 29% and 37% of Jewish men, respectively [T(198)=2.39, P = 0.02]. Mean blood oxygen saturation was comparable.

Conclusions: Arab men presenting for evaluation of sleep apnea harbored more severe OSA symptoms, were younger, and had higher BMI compared to Jewish men. Since OSA syndrome evolves for several years until it becomes severe, these findings suggest that Arab men seek medical assistance later than Jewish men with OSA.


December 2013
Oleg Pikovsky, Maly Oron, Arthur Shiyovich, Zvi H. Perry and Lior Nesher
 Background: Prolonged working hours and sleep deprivation can exert negative effects on professional performance and health.

Objectives: To assess the relationship between sleep deprivation, key metabolic markers, and professional performance in medical residents.

Methods: We compared 35 residents working the in-house night shift with 35 senior year medical students in a cross-sectional cohort study. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire was administered and blood tests for complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry panel, lipid profile and C-reactive protein (CRP) were obtained from all participants.

Results: Medical students and medical residents were comparable demographically except for age, weekly working hours, reported weight gain, and physical activity. The ESS questionnaires indicated a significantly higher and abnormal mean score and higher risk of falling asleep during five of eight daily activities among medical residents as compared with medical students. Medical residents had lower high density lipoprotein levels, a trend towards higher triglyceride levels and higher monocyte count than did medical students. CRP levels and other laboratory tests were normal and similar in both groups. Among the medical residents, 5 (15%) were involved in a car accident during residency, and 63% and 49% reported low professional performance and judgment levels after the night shift, respectively.

Conclusions: Medical residency service was associated with increased sleepiness, deleterious lifestyle changes, poorer lipid profile, mild CBC changes, and reduced professional performance and judgment after working the night shift. However, no significant changes were observed in CRP or in blood chemistry panel. Larger prospective cohort studies are warranted to evaluate the dynamics in sleepiness and metabolic factors over time.

November 2013
E. Ganelin-Cohen and A. Ashkenasi
 There is a well-established correlation between sleep disturbances and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A large number of pediatric patients diagnosed with ADHD have sleep problems, while patients with sleep disturbances often display behavioral patterns that resemble some features of ADHD. Despite these observations, the relationship between sleep problems and ADHD is not yet fully understood. It is often difficult to pinpoint which of the disorders is the primary and which a byproduct of the other. A complicating factor is that stimulant medication such as methylphenidate, a drug of choice for ADHD, may adversely affect sleep quality in ADHD patients. However, there have also been reports that it may actually improve sleep quality. This review examines the latest trends in the contemporary literature on this clinical dilemma.

September 2013
A. Elizur, A. Maliar, I. Shpirer, A. E. Buchs, E. Shiloah and M. J. Rapoport
 Background: Obstructive sleep apnea has been shown to be associated with impaired glucose metabolism and overt diabetes mellitus. However, the effect of hypoxic episodes on nocturnal glucose regulation in non-diabetic patients is unknown.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of hypoxemia and nocturnal glucose homeosatsis in non-diabetic patients with sleep apnea.

Methods: Seven non-diabetic patients with moderate to severe sleep apnea were connected to a continuous glucose-monitoring sensor while undergoing overnight polysomnography. Mean SpO2 and percentage of time spent at SpO2 < 90% were recorded. The correlation between mean glucose levels, the difference between consecutive mean glucose measurements (glucose variability) and the corresponding oxygen saturation variables were determined in each patient during REM[1] and non-REM sleep.

Results: No consistent correlation was found for the individual patient between oxygen saturation variables and glucose levels during sleep. However, a lower mean SpO2 correlated with decreased glucose variability during sleep (r = 0.79, P = 0.034). This effect was primarily evident during REM sleep in patients with significant, compared to those with mild, oxygen desaturations during sleep (> 30% vs. < 10% of sleeping time spent with SpO2 < 90%) (P = 0.03).

Conclusions: Severe nocturnal hypoxemia in non-diabetic patients with moderate to severe sleep apnea might affect glucose regulation primarily during REM sleep.


[1] REM = rapid eye movement

August 2013
E. Rogev and G. Pillar
 Background: Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder. Treatment options are improved sleep hygiene, relaxation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and medications. Studies examining the effect of hypnotics on insomnia reported that placebo had a substantial beneficial effect. Objectives: To evaluate whether placebo is an effective treatment for insomnia.

Methods: We assessed 25 patients with insomnia who were enrolled in a hypnotic study but prior to the study were asked to undergo two full nights in lab polysomnography studies: with and without a placebo. Although they were not explicitly told that they were receiving a placebo, the participants knew that the results of these studies would determine whether they met the criteria to participate in the pharmaceutical study.

Results: Although the participants acknowledged that they were given a placebo, almost all measures of their sleep improved. With placebo, sleep latency was shortened from 55.8 ± 43.5 to 39.8 ± 58.5 minutes (P < 0.05); total sleep time was extended from 283 ± 72.5 to 362.9 ± 56.3 minutes, and sleep efficiency improved from 59.57 ± 14.78 to 75.5 ± 11.70% (P < 0.05). Interestingly, placebo had no effect on the relative sleep stage distribution (percentage of total sleep time), except for a trend toward increased percentage of REM[1] sleep.

Conclusions: Our findings how a clear and significant beneficial effect of placebo on insomnia, despite participants' understanding that they were receiving placebo. These results emphasize the importance of the patients' perception and belief in insomnia treatment, and suggest that in some cases placebo may serve as a treatment.

[1] REM = rapid eye movements

December 2011
I. Grodman, D. Buskila, Y. Arnson, A. Altaman, D. Amital and H. Amital
July 2011
O. Tzischinsky, S. Shahrabani and R. Peled

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, accidents and high medical expenses. The first line of treatment for OSAS is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

Objectives: To examine attitudes and beliefs as well as physiological and sociodemographic factors affecting OSA patients' decision whether or not to purchase a CPAP device.

Methods: The study was divided into two stages; in the first, 83 subjects completed self-administered questionnaires prior to sleep examination (polysomnographic study). The questionnaires related to sleep habits, sleep disorders, questions organized around health belief model (HBM) concepts, sociodemographic information, health status and PSG[1] examination. In the second stage, 3 months later, 50 OSAS patients were interviewed by telephone, which included questions about their reasons for purchasing/not purchasing the CPAP device.

Results: Only 48% of the OSAS patients purchased the CPAP device. The significant factors positively affecting the decision included higher levels of physiological factors such as body mass index (coefficient 0.36, P < 0.05) and respiratory disturbance index (coefficient 0.16, P < 0.05), higher income levels (coefficient 3.26, p < 0.05), and higher levels of knowledge about OSAS (coefficient -2.98, P < 0.1).

Conclusions: Individuals who are more aware of their own health condition, are better informed about OSAS and have higher incomes are more likely to purchase the device. We suggest reducing the level of co-payment and providing patients with more information about the severe effects of OSAS.

[1] PSG = polysomnography

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