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עמוד בית
Fri, 01.03.24

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September 2015
Toker Ori MD, Tal Yuval MD PhD, Daher Salech MD and Shalit Meir MD
July 2014
Ori Toker MD, Ariella Tvito MD, Jacob M. Rowe MD, Jacob Ashkenazi MD, Chezi Ganzel MD, Yuval Tal MD and Meir Shalit MD
January 2012
Pedro Ojeda, MD, MPH, Isabel Ojeda, MD, Gema Rubio, MD and Fernando Pineda, PhD.

Background: In the last decade the use of different types of oral immunotherapy for food-allergic patients has increased with generally satisfactory outcomes. Cow’s milk and hen’s egg, a common element in the daily diet, have received the main interest. Most of these immunotherapy regimens are performed in the hospital, causing inconvenience for both children and their parents.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of a home-based oral immunotherapy regimen with raw pasteurized egg.

Methods: The study group comprised children aged 6 years and older with allergy to hen’s egg proteins, proven by positive skin prick-tests (SPT) and/or specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and positive open oral food challenge (OOFC) with boiled or raw egg. Patients who met the inclusion criteria and signed the informed consent form underwent egg immunotherapy according to an established schedule.

Results: The treatment was given to 31 of the 36 recruited patients: 80.6% of the intention to treat population achieved complete tolerance to the maximum dose equivalent to one raw hen’s egg, 3.2% achieved incomplete tolerance, and 16.2% did not achieve an acceptable tolerance dose. Most of the latter patients had a positive baseline OOFC with low doses of boiled egg. The average number of reactions per treated patient was 5.8, most of them grades 1 and 2 there were no grade 4 reactions.

Conclusions: This home-based oral immunotherapy protocol proved to effectively induce tolerance to hen’s egg in most of the egg-allergic children and its safety profile was acceptable.

Giuseppe Crisafulli, PhD, Lucia Caminiti, MD and Giovanni B. Pajno, MD
December 2011
I. Grodman, D. Buskila, Y. Arnson, A. Altaman, D. Amital and H. Amital
January 2008
Y. Katz, M.R. Goldberg, G. Zadik-Mnuhin, M. Leshno and E. Heyman

Background: Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy to cow’s milk protein represents a major problem for infants who are not breast fed. A search for substitute milks revealed a cross-allergenicity to milk derived from goat and sheep but not to milk from a mare. We noted that the cow, goat and sheep species are both artiodactyls and ruminants, defining them as kosher animals, in contrast to the mare.

Objectives: To determine whether patients with IgE[1]-mediated cow’s milk allergy are cross-sensitized to milk from other species such as the deer, ibex, buffalo, pig and camel.

Methods: Patients with a clinical history consistent with IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy were tested by skin prick test to validate the diagnosis. They were then evaluated by skin-prick test for cross-sensitization to milk-derived proteins from other species.

Results: All patients allergic to cow's milk tested positive by skin-prick test for cross-reactivity to deer, Ibex and buffalo (n=24, P = 0). In contrast, only 5 of the 24 patients (20.83%) tested positive to pig milk and only 2 of 8 (25%) to camel’s milk. Cross-sensitization to soy milk was noted in 4 of 23 patients (17.39%), although they all tolerated oral ingestion of soy-containing foods.

Conclusions: A significant cross-sensitization to milk proteins derived from kosher animals exists in patients allergic to cow's milk protein, but far less so compared to the milk proteins from non-kosher animals tested. Patients with proven IgE-mediated allergy to cow’s milk can utilize the above findings to predict suitable alternative sources of milk.






[1] Ig = immunogloublin



August 2007
E. Cohen-Hillel, I. Yron, T. Meshel and A. Ben-Baruch

Background: Interleukin-8 is a prototypical inflammatory chemokine that induces leukocyte migration to inflammatory sites. Leukocyte recruitment in response to gradients of this chemokine is attenuated at advanced stages of inflammation to prevent damage to surrounding healthy tissues. Our published studies suggest that over-phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase in migration-desensitizing conditions is involved in cessation of cell motility. This over-phosphorylation of FAK[1] was induced by IL-8[2] only when the receptor transmitting the chemokine signals was CXCR2, and not CXCR1, indicating that the two IL-8 receptors diverge in their signaling properties.

Objectives: To analyze the regulation of FAK in CXCR2-expressing hematopoietic cells under conditions of migratory desensitization, focusing on the roles played by adhesion-related components in this process.

Methods: Under conditions of migratory desensitization, we determined IL-8-induced cell spreading and FAK localization following disruption of actin filaments, and evaluated the role of integrins in FAK phosphorylation.

Results: The disturbance of intact activity of actin filaments resulted in inhibition of cell spreading and modification of FAK intracellular localization upon IL-8 stimulation. Also, adhesion-dependent pre-stimulation of integrins was required for IL-8-induced FAK phosphorylation.
Conclusions: Intact actin filaments and integrins are required for optimal IL-8-induced FAK phosphorylation in conditions of migratory desensitization. These observations suggest that lack of adequate activity/regulation of adhesion-related components may give rise to FAK activities that are not appropriately controlled, possibly leading to pathological conditions that are associated with perturbed leukocyte migration phenotypes







[1] FAK = focal adhesion kinase



[2] IL = interleukin


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