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עמוד בית
Sun, 21.04.24

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February 2019
Waseem A. Abboud DMD, Sahar Nadel DMD, Sharon Hassin-Baer MD, Abigail Arad MD, Alex Dobriyan DMD and Ran Yahalom DMD

Background: Drooling is the unintentional loss of saliva from the mouth, usually caused by poor coordination of the swallowing mechanism. It is commonly seen in patients with chronic neurologic disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cerebral palsy, and stroke, as well as in patients with cognitive impairment and dementia.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections into the parotid and submandibular salivary glands for the treatment of drooling.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 12 consecutive patients treated with botulinum toxin injections into the parotid and submandibular glands for the first time. The primary outcome variable was the subjective improvement of drooling on a 5-point scale. Secondary outcome variables were duration of the therapeutic effect, request to undergo additional treatment, and adverse events.

Results: Of 12 patients, 8 (67%) reported considerable improvement after treatment, 3 reported slight improvement, and 1 reported development of dry mouth. All patients stated that they felt the effects 1 week after the injections; the mean duration of the therapeutic effect was 4.5 months (range 3–9 months). One patient suffered from local hematoma and ecchymosis that did not require medical care. Another patient complained of difficulty swallowing, which did not require medical treatment and resolved spontaneously within 1 month.

Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections into the parotid and submandibular glands seem to be a safe and effective therapy for the treatment of drooling. Further long-term prospective studies with varying doses are warranted.

January 2017
Marwan Odeh MD, Moshe Bronshtein MD and Jacob Bornstein MD MPA

Background: The congenital absence of salivary glands has been reported in children but never in fetuses with trisomy 21.

Objectives: To determine whether the congenital absence of salivary glands can be detected prenatally between 13 and 16 weeks of gestation in normal and trisomy 21 fetuses using transvaginal ultrasound. 

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of recordings of normal and trisomy 21 fetuses. Inclusion criteria were a single viable fetus and good visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands on both sides of the fetal face. All videos were reviewed by one examiner who reported the presence or absence of one or more salivary glands and was blinded to the fetal karyotype.

Results: Of the 45 videos reviewed, 4 were excluded from the study: namely, a non-viable fetus, twin pregnancy, and in 2 there was unsatisfactory visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands. Of the remaining 41 fetuses, 24 had trisomy 21 and 17 were normal. In the trisomy 21 fetuses, 8 (33.3%) had congenital absence of one or more salivary glands compared to 1 of 17 normal fetuses (5.9%) (P < 0.05). 

Conclusions: Congenital absence of the salivary glands has a high specificity but low sensitivity for detecting trisomy 21 fetuses.

 

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