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עמוד בית
Tue, 23.07.24

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December 2023
Moshe Salai MD, Yoram Sandhaus MD, Ahuva Golik MD, Naomi Rahimi-Levene MD, Hana Castel MD, Zachi Grossman MD, Avinoam Tzabari MD, Eitan Lunenfeld MD, Shai Ashkenazi MD, Talma Kushnir PhD

The ancient, Biblical, holy Ten Commandments were presented to humanity to serve as guidelines for relationships between individuals and the deity they worship as well as a benchmark for living in civilized communities, irrespective of religious affiliation. The commandments are also embedded in medical education taught to medical students and other health professions throughout the world. Thus, the Ten Commandments are embedded in the medical communications curriculum at Adelson School of Medicine, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel. Unfortunately, most of these commandments were desecrated during the violent, hostile, merciless, and ruthless attack inflicted by the Hamas terror organization on villages, rural communities, and cities in southern Israel on 7 October 2023. We define the Ten Commandments in terms of medical education and describe their desecration by Hamas terrorists before and during the Iron Swords war.

June 2015
Shachar Kenan MD, Aviram Gold MD, Moshe Salai MD, Ely Steinberg MD, Ran Ankory MD and Ofir Chechik MD

Background: The surgical treatment of hip fractures remains controversial especially when considering age. 

Objectives: To investigate the long-term functional outcomes of displaced subcapital hip fractures that were reduced and surgically fixed using parallel cannulated screws in patients aged 60 years and younger. 

Methods: During the period 1996–2005, 27 patients under age 60 with displaced subcapital hip fractures classified as Garden III or IV were treated with fracture reduction and surgical internal fixation using cannulated screws. Patient outcomes were assessed using the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and physical examination.

Results: During a follow-up period of 8–17 years 4 of the 27 patients (14.8%) developed non-union/femoral head avascular necrosis and had undergone hip arthroplasty. All reoperations were performed within the first year after fracture fixation, all in the 50–60 year old age group. The revision rate among patients 50–60 years old was significantly higher than that of patients 50 years and younger (40% vs. 0%, P = 0.037). Mean HHS was higher for patients not requiring revision surgery (85.4) than for patients with revision surgery (75.5), but this difference was not significant.

Conclusions: Internal fixation using fracture reduction and cannulated screw fixation is a successful treatment modality for displaced subcapital hip fractures in patients younger than 50 years old. Patients aged 50–60 years may have a higher risk of avascular necrosis or non-union and require arthroplasty, often within the first year after fracture fixation. The long-term outcome following these fractures is good when excluding patients who had early complications.


February 2014
Noam Rosen, Roy Gigi, Amir Haim, Moshe Salai and Ofir Chechik
Background: Above-the-knee amputations (AKA) and below-the-knee amputations (BKA) are commonly indicated in patients with ischemia, extensive tissue loss, or infection. AKA were previously reported to have better wound-healing rates but poorer rehabilitation rates than BKA.

Objectives: To compare the outcomes of AKA and BKA and to identify risk factors for poor outcome following leg amputation.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised 188 consecutive patients (mean age 72 years, range 25–103, 71% males) who underwent 198 amputations (91 AKA, 107 BKA, 10 bilateral procedures) between February 2007 and May 2010. Included were male and female adults who underwent amputations for ischemic, infected or gangrenotic foot. Excluded were patients whose surgery was performed for other indications (trauma, tumors). Mortality and reoperations (wound debridement or need for conversion to a higher level of amputation) were evaluated as outcomes. Patient- and surgery-related risk factors were studied in relation to these primary outcomes.

Results: The risk factors for mortality were dementia [hazard ratio (HR) 2.769], non-ambulatory status preoperatively (HR 2.281), heart failure (HR 2.013) and renal failure (HR 1.87). Resistant bacterial infection (HR 3.083) emerged as a risk factor for reoperation. Neither AKA nor BKA was found to be an independent predictor of mortality or reoperation.

Conclusions: Both AKA and BKA are associated with very high mortality rates. Mortality is most probably related to serious comorbidities (renal and heart disease) and to reduced functional status and dementia. Resistant bacterial infections are associated with high rates of reoperation. The risk factors identified can aid surgeons and patients to better anticipate and possibly prevent severe complications.

September 2013
A. Kadar MD, R. Ankory, H. Sherman, I. Eshed, N. Shasha, A. Gold, M. Aharon and M. Salai

Background: The articular surface replacement (ASR) total hip arthroplasty (THA) was recently recalled from the market due to high failure rates. This modality was used frequently by surgeons at our medical center.

Objectives: To assess the clinical and radiographic outcomes in patients following the surgery and determine the revision rate in our cohort.

Methods: Between 2007 and 2010 139 hips were operated on and evaluated in our clinic. All patients underwent a clinical interview, function and pain evaluation, as well as physical examination and radiographic evaluation. When necessary, patients were sent for further tests, such as measuring cobalt-chromium levels and magnetic resonance hip imaging. Results: With an average follow-up of 42 months the revision rate was 2% (3/139). Patients reported alleviation of pain (from 8.8 to 1.7 on the Visual Analog Scale, P < 0.001), good functional outcomes on the Harris Hip Score, and improved quality of life. Overall satisfaction was 7.86 on the reversed VAS[1]. For patients who required further tests, clinical and radiographic outcomes were significantly poorer than for the rest of the cohort. Average blood ion levels were high above the normal (cobalt 31.39 ppb, chromium 13.32 ppb), and the rate of inflammatory collection compatible with pseudotumors on MRI was 57%.

Discussion: While our study favors the use of the ASR implant both clinically and radiographically, some patients with abnormal ion levels and inflammatory collections on MRI might require revision in the future. 

[1] VAS = Visual Analogue Scale

December 2011
S. Shemesh, S. Heller, M. Salai and S. Velkes

Background: Intraarticular injections for the local treatment of osteoarthritis are widely used in the office or hospital setting. Septic arthritis is a potential catastrophic complication of intraarticular injection, as bacterial arthritis of any cause is associated with up to 15% mortality and residual impairment of joint function in up to 50% of survivors. There is lack of evidence regarding the precautions that should be taken to avoid such a complication, as well as how often it is encountered.

Objectives: To report our experience with the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of knee septic arthritis following intraarticular injections. 

Methods: We followed six patients who were admitted to the hospital and underwent surgery for the treatment of pyogenic arthritis following injection to the knee joint in outpatient clinics.

Results: All but one patient were over 70 years old with comorbidities. Three patients were injected with steroid preparations and three with hyaluronic acid several days before admission. In all six patients the infection was treated surgically and three of them had undergone more than one operation during their hospitalization. Four of the six patients were treated by means of an open arthrotomy and synovectomy, and the other two were treated successfully with arthroscopic lavage and synovectomy. One patient underwent an above-knee amputation due to septic shock and died after several days.

Conclusions: Despite the rarity of this complication, surgeons must be aware of the possibility of pyogenic arthritis when administering injections, especially in elderly patients with serious underlying medical conditions.

August 2011
E. Sidon, A. Burg, N. Ohana, M. Salai and I. Dudkiewicz
September 2009
A. Burg, M. Salai, G. Nachum, B. Haviv, S. Heller and I. Dudkiewicz

Background: Gunshot wounds impose a continuous burden on community and hospital resources. Gunshot injuries to the extremities might involve complex soft tissue, bone, vascular, musculotendinous, and nerve injuries. A precise knowledge of anatomy is needed to evaluate and treat those injuries.

Objectives: To review our experience with gunshot wounds to the extremities.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of gunshot wounds to the limbs in a civilian setting treated in our institution during 2003–2005. Altogether, we evaluated 60 patients with 77 injuries.

Results: Of the 60 patients 36 had fractures, 75% of them in the lower extremity and 81% in long bones. The most common fixation modality used was external fixation (33%), followed by intramedullary nailing (25%). This relatively high percentage of fracture treated with external fixation may be attributed to the comminuted pattern of the fractures, the general status of the patient, or the local soft tissue problems encountered in gunshot wounds. About one-fifth of the fractures were treated by debridement only without hardware fixation. We treated 10 vascular injuries in 8 patients; 6 of them were injuries to the popliteal vessels. Fractures around the knee comprised the highest risk factor for vascular injuries, since 5 of the 12 fractures around the knee were associated with vascular injury requiring repair or reconstruction. There were 13 nerve injuries (16.8%), most of them of the deep peroneal nerve (38%). Only three patients had concomitant nerve and vascular injuries. The overall direct complication rate in our series was 20%.

Conclusions: Treating complex gunshot injuries requires a team approach, necessary for a favorable outcome. This team should be led by an orthopedic surgeon knowledgeable in the functional anatomy of the limbs.

May 2009
S. Heller, I. Fenichel, M. Salai, T Luria and S. Velkes

Background: Unicompartmental knee replacement has become a surgical alternative for treating isolated medial or lateral osteoarthritis of the knee or avascular necrosis of the femoral condyls.

Objectives: To evaluate the short-term results of the Oxford Phase 3® unicompartmental knee replacement for unicompartmental knee arthrosis or avascular necrosis of the medial

femoral condyle.

Methods: During the period 2003–2005 a total of 59 patients (59 knees) underwent medial Oxford Phase 3® unicompartmental knee replacement in our unit. The patients were interviewed and examined, and standing anteroposterior and lateral X-rays were taken. All patients completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis and the Short Form 12 questionnaire, and the International Knee Society score was evaluated. The data were collected and statistical analysis was performed.

Results: X-rays were performed and scores for the WOMAC[1] and IKS[2] were assessed for 42 patients (31 females, 11 males). At an average of 32 months after surgery, the total WOMAC score was 30. The mean SF[3]12 physical score was 38 and the mean SF12 mental score was 51. The mean IKS score was 166. Ninety-one percent of the patients had active flexion of 120 degrees or more. Of 59 knees 7 were converted to total knee arthroplasty – all of them within the first 2 years of starting the procedure and all of them in relatively young patients.

Conclusions: Despite the higher revision rate to TKR[4] in this study, our findings confirm the short-term results reported in other studies of the Oxford medial unicompartmental knee and our early failure rate could be explained by a performance learning curve. This study confirms that this bone-preserving procedure should be considered in end-stage isolated unicompartmental osteoarthritis or avascular necrosis by surgeons who have the adequate training and experience.

[1] WOMAC = Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis

[2] IKS = International Knee Society

[3] SF = short form

[4] TKR = total knee arthroplasty


March 2009
M. Kastner, M. Salai, S. Fichman, S. Heller and I. Dudkiewicz

Background: Elastofibroma is a rare type of lesion consisting of elastic fibers within a stroma of collagen and fatty tissue. It is usually located on the lower scapular region attached firmly to the thoracic cage, often causing debilitating pain. Its clinical presentation mimics a soft tissue tumor.

Objectives: To evaluate the diagnosis and treatment results of elastofibroma.

Methods: Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed in 11 patients with thoracic wall mass. In five of them a biopsy was taken before surgery. All patients were operated and the diagnosis of elastofibroma was confirmed by histology. 

Results: Two patients had a postoperative seroma that resolved spontaneously within a few days. All patients resumed their preoperative activities, including sports.

Conclusions: Considering the slow-growing nature of this tumor and its typical presentation, we believe that when this diagnosis is suspected, investigation does not necessitate staging (as in sarcomas). Also, marginal surgical excision is sufficient. Observation is an acceptable alternative to surgery.

October 2005
S. Gurevitz, B. Bender, Y. Tytiun, S. Velkes, M. Salai and M. Stein.
 Background: Pelvic fracture poses a complex challenge to the trauma surgeon. It is associated with head, thoracic and abdominal injuries. As pelvic fracture severity increases so does the number of associated injuries and the mortality rate.

Objectives: To report our experience in the treatment of pelvic fractures.

Methods: Between October 1998 and September 2001, 78 patients with pelvic fractures were admitted to our hospital. The age range of the 56 male and 22 female patients was 16–92 (mean 42 years). The cause of injury was road accident in 52 patients, fall from a height in 15, a simple fall in 9, and gunshot wounds in 2 patients. The Glascow Coma Scale score on arrival at the hospital was 3–15 (average 12). Twenty-five patients (32%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, 38 (48%) to the orthopedic department, 5 (6.4%) to neurosurgery and the remainder to a surgical department.

Results: Twenty-six patients (33.3%) received blood transfusion in the first 24 hours. Of the 25 patients (32%) with associated head trauma, 6 had intracranial bleeding; 29 patients (37%) had associated chest trauma, 28 (35.9%) had associated abdominal trauma, 16 (20.5%) had vertebral fractures and 40 (51.2%) had associated limb fractures. Pelvic angiography was performed in 5 patients (6.4%), and computed tomography-angiography of the cervical arteries and chest was performed in 1 and 5 patients respectively. Overall, a CT scan was performed in 56 patients (71.8%), of whom 25 (32%) had a pelvic CT on admission. Injury Severity Score was 4–66 (median 20). Laparotomy was performed in 14 patients (18%), spinal fusion in 5 (6.4%), limb surgery in 16 (20.5%), cranial surgery in 4 (5.02%), pelvic surgery in 10 (12.8%), chest surgery in 3 (3.85%), and facial surgery in 2 patients (2.56%). Seven patients (9%) died during the course of treatment.

Conclusion: Pelvic fracture carries a high morbidity rate. Associated chest, abdomen and limb injuries are often encountered. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to improve survival and outcome in patients with pelvic fractures. 

January 2005
I. Dudkiewicz, I. Cohen, S. Horowitz, S. Regev, M. Perelman, A. Chechik, P. Langevitz, S. Strasburg, A. Livneh and M. Salai

Background: Heterotopic ossification is a common complication of hip surgery and musculoskeletal or brain traumas.

Objectives: To confirm by in vivo study that colchicine inhibits osteoblast cell proliferation with marked decrease in tissue mineralization.

Methods: Heterotopic ossification was induced in three groups of New Zealand white rabbits (females, 6 months old, weight 3–3.5 kg) by injecting 2 ml bone marrow drawn from the iliac crest into their right thigh muscle. To prevent heterotopic ossification, colchicine (0.25 mg/day) was administered orally for 4 weeks to two groups of adult rabbits: group A (preload group) – 1 week preceding bone marrow injection; group B – on day of injection; and group C – control group.

Results: After 4 weeks the rabbits were evaluated by radiographs and ultrasound for evidence of heterotopic ossification. At the end of the study histologic samples were taken from all the thighs. Imaging and histologic studies showed, with statistical significance, almost complete prevention of heterotopic ossification formation in group A (preload) and a marked decrease in group B, when compared with the controls in whom large new bone had formed at the injection site. These results indicated the inhibitory effects of colchicine on a bone-forming process in soft tissue such as heterotopic ossification.

Conclusions: The role of colchicine in preventing heterotopic ossification in other bone-forming conditions, such as hip arthroplasty or pelvic trauma, and after brain trauma, remains to be evaluated in a clinical setting.


September 2004
I. Dudkiewicz, A. Oran, M. Salai, R. Palti and M. Pritsch

Background: Adhesive capsulitis, also termed “frozen shoulder,” is controversial by definition and diagnostic criteria that are not sufficiently understood. The clinical course of this condition is considered as self-limiting and is divided into three clinical phases. Several treatment methods for adhesive capsulitis have been reported in the literature, none of which has proven superior to others.

Objectives: To evaluate the long-term follow-up of patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis who were treated conservatively.

Methods: We conducted a long-term follow-up (range 5.5–16 years, mean 9.2 years) of 54 patients suffering from idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. All patients were treated with physical therapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Results: An increased statistically significant improvement (P < 0.00001) was found between the first and last visits to the polyclinic in all measured movement directions: elevation and external and internal rotation.

Conclusions: Conservative treatment (physical therapy and NSAIDs[1]) is a good long-term treatment regimen for idiopathic adhesive capsulitis.

[1] NSAIDs = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

October 2003
I. Dudkiewicz, M. Salai, A. Israeli, Y. Amit and A. Chechick

Background: Previously reported results of total hip arthroplasty in patients younger than 30 years of age indicate a high complication rate and questionable durability.

Objectives: To estimate the results of THA[1] in extremely young patients.

Methods: We report the results of 69 THA procedures in 56 patients who were under the age of 30 at the time of surgery (mean age 23.23 ± 4.31 years) and were followed-up postoperatively for 2–23 years (mean 7.4 ± 3.79 years).

Results: Loosening of the cup (11/69) and early traumatic dislocation (5/69) accounted for the majority of complications.

Conclusion: The final average Harris hip scores of 90.59 ± 9.36 in these patients indicated that THA is a successful and durable treatment modality for young patients with disabling diseases affecting the hip joint. However, due to the likelihood of complications it should be used with caution in this patient group. Efforts should be made to diminish the complication rate.

[1] THA = total hip arthroplasty

May 2002
Israel Dudkiewicz, MD, Rami Levi, MD, Alexander Blankstein, MD, Aharon Chechick, MD and Moshe Salai, MD

Background: Open reduction and internal fixation are the current trends of treatment for comminuted calcaneal fractures. Assessing treatment results is often difficult due to discrepancy between objective parameters such as range of movement, and subjective results such as pain.

Objectives: To test the reliability of footprint analysis as an adjuvant method of postoperative assessment of patients who sustained calcaneal fractures.

Methods: Dynamic and static footprint analysis was used as an adjuvant method to objectively assess operative results. This method is simple and is independent of the patient’s initiatives. This modality was used in 22 patients followed-up 9–90 months postoperatively.

Results: We found a good correlation between footprint analysis and objective and subjective parameters of results expressed by the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society hind foot score. In certain cases, this method can be used to distinguish between uncorrelated parameter results, such as malingering, and workmens’ compensation claims.

Conclusion: We recommend the use of this simple, non-invasive objective test as an additional method to assess the results of ankle and foot surgery treatment.

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