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עמוד בית
Tue, 16.07.24

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July 2002
Ronen Rubinshtein, MD, Eyal Robenshtok, MD, Arik Eisenkraft, MD, Aviv Vidan, MD and Ariel Hourvitz, MD

Recent events have significantly increased concern about the use of biologic and chemical weapons by terrorists and other countries. Since weapons of mass destruction could result in a huge number of casualties, optimizing our diagnostic and therapeutic skills may help to minimize the morbidity and mortality. The national demands for training in medical aspects of nuclear, biologic and chemical warfare have increased dramatically. While Israeli medical preparedness for non-conventional warfare has improved substantially in recent years especially due to extensive training programs, a standardized course and course materials were not available until recently. We have developed a core curriculum and teaching materials for a 1 or 2 day modular course, including printed materials.

June 2002
January 2002
Ronen Rubinshtein, MD, Eran Bar-Meir, MD, Ahuva Grubstein, MD and Haim Bitterman, MD
March 2001
Itzchak Levi, MD, Baruch Modan, MD, Tzvia Blumstein, MA, Osnat Luxenburg, MD, Tamar Yehuda-Cohen, PhD, Barak Shasha, MD, Amir Lotan, MD, Arie Bundstein, MD, Asher Barzilai, MD and Ethan Rubinstein, MD

Objectives: To compare risk behavior between subjects attending anonymous and confidential clinics for human immunodeficiency virus testing, and to assess whether anonymous testing results in a higher accrual of persons at risk for HIV.

Methods: An anonymous questionnaire that addressed sociodemographic and risk behavior aspects was administered to 140 subjects attending an anonymous clinic and 124 attending a confidential clinic in the Tel Aviv area. A logistic regression analysis was used to compare the effects of various behavioral factors on the probability of attending each clinic.

Results: Chronological age, age at first sexual intercourse and the percent of married subjects were similar in both clinics. However, there was a significant difference in the sex ratio and in educational attainment (85.0% versus 55.6% were males, P< 0.001 and 58% vs. 34% had over 12 years of education, P<0.001, in the anonymous and confidential clinics respectively).

There was a striking difference between the two clinics with regard to sexual experience characteristics: of the subjects reaching the anonymous clinic 21.4% were homosexual and 10.0% bisexual versus a total of 2.6% in the confidential clinic. A logistic regression analysis, comparing the effects of various behavioral factors on the probability of attending each clinic showed that gender (male), high education, homosexuality, number of partners and sexual encounter with sex workers were the strongest predictors for selecting anonymous HIV examination.

Conclusions: Individuals at high risk for HIV, such as homosexuals and bisexuals, prefer to attend an anonymous clinic.

December 2000
Sonia Habib, MD, MPH, Shmuel Rishpon, MD, MPH and Lisa Rubin, MD, MPH
 Objective: To determine the vaccination rates among healthcare workers in the Haifa subdistrict and to assess factors associated with vaccination uptake among them.

Methods: The study was conducted in the three general hospitals in Haifa City, and in five nursing homes in the Haifa subdistrict. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 1,014 employees of whom 71% were females, 34% were nurses, 27% were physicians and 28% were non-professional workers.

Results: The crude response rate was 66%. Response rates were higher in females (71%) than in males (49%), in nurses (70%) than in physicians (43%), and in staff of internal and pediatric departments than in workers of surgery departments and emergency rooms. The overall vaccination rate among the respondents was 11%, which was higher among males (15%) than among females (10%). No significant relationship between vaccination rate and age, occupation and department was found. The vaccination rate among employees with chronic illness was very low (7%). Influenza vaccine was actively recommended to 29% of the employees. The main reasons for non-compliance were low awareness of the severity of the disease and of the vaccine's efficacy and safety, and unavailability of the vaccine within the workplace.

Conclusions: Educational efforts and offering the vaccine at the workplace at no cost are the most important measures for raising influenza vaccination rates.

November 2000
September 2000
Edna Ben-Asher, PhD, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, PhD, Shirley Horn-Saban, PhD, Nili Avidan, PhD, Zviya Olender, PhD, Avital Adato, PhD, Gustavo Glusman, Marilyn Safran, Menachem Rubinstein, PhD and Doron Lancet, PhD
Mordechai Yigla, MD, Salim Dabbah, MD, Zaher S. Azzam, MD, Ami-Hai E. Rubin, MD and Simon, A. Reisner, MD

Background: Data regarding the epidemiology of secondary pulmonary hypertension are scanty.

Objectives: To describe the spectrum and relative incidence of background diseases in patients with significant secondary PHT.

Methods: We identified 671 patients with systolic pulmonary artery pressure of 45 mm Hg or more from the database of the echocardiographic laboratory. Their background diseases were recorded and classified into three subgroups: cardiac, pulmonary and pulmonary vascular disease without pulmonary parenchymal disease. Age at the first echocardiographic study, gender and systolic PAP values were recorded. Data between the three subgroups were compared.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 6515 years, mean systolic PAP 6114 mm Hg and female:male ratio 1.21:1. At the time of diagnosis 85% of the patients were older than 50. PHT was secondary to cardiac disease in 579 patients (86.3%), to PVD without PPD in 54 patients (8%) and to PPD in only 38 patients (5.7%). Mean age and mean systolic PAP did not differ significantly among the three subgroups. There was a significantly higher female: male ratio in patients with PVD without PPD compared with cardiac or pulmonary diseases (1.7:1 vs. 1.2:1 and 1.7 vs. 0.8:1 respectively, P0.05).

Conclusions: The majority of patients with significant PHT are elderly with heart disease. PVD without PPD and chronic PPD are a relatively uncommon cause of significant PHT. Since the diagnosis of PHT is of clinical significance and sometimes merits different therapeutic interventions, we recommend screening by Doppler echocardiography for patients with high risk background diseases.

September 1999
Gideon Nesher, MD, Hanan Gur, MD, Michael Ehrenfeld, MD, Alan Rubinow, MD and Moshe Sonnenblick, MD.
 Objectives: To evaluate whether the increasing incidence of temporal arteritis in Israel is associated with a changing clinical presentation.

Methods: The demographic data and clinical manifestations of 144 TA1 patients in this large multicenter study were recorded and compared with data obtained in a previous study.

Results: The patient population was older, with 24% ≥80 years compared to 6% in the previous study.  There was an increase in the number of nonspecific presenting symptoms, and less patients presented with the “classical” manifestations of headache (81% vs. 71%), fever (83% vs. 40%), jaw claudication (21% vs. 13%), and visual symptoms (47% vs. 24%). The median time from presentation to diagnosis was significantly reduced, from 5 to 1.5 months.

Conclusions: There were substantial changes in the clinical presentation of TA patients in Israel during 1980–95 compared to patients diagnosed prior to 1978. It is suggested that these changes may be attributed not only to the influence of aging of the population, but are due largely to increasing physician awareness to the spectrum of manifestations of TA, which leads to earlier diagnosis.


1TA = temporal arteritis

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