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עמוד בית
Wed, 06.12.23

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November 2008
R. Shaoul et al

Background: Patients with non-inflamed appendix have been reported to have had more hospitalizations and emotional disorders before and after the operation than patients with acute appendicitis.

Objectives: To compare abdominal pain characteristics, as well as demographic and psychosocial data in children with histologically confirmed appendicitis compared to non-inflamed appendices.

Methods: Charts of children with suspected appendicitis who had undergone appendectomy were retrospectively reviewed for relevant clinical and laboratory data. The patients or their parents were then contacted by phone and were asked to respond to a detailed questionnaire on abdominal symptoms as well as demographic and psychosocial data.

Results: The study group comprised 156 children: 117 with histologically confirmed appendicitis and 39 with normal appendices. Eighty-two patients (53.2%) were located and interviewed: 62 (54%) with appendicitis and 20 (51%) with normal appendices. Of the 82 children, 16 reported recurrent episodes of abdominal pain before or after surgery: 11 (17.7%) in the appendicitis group and 5 (25%) in the normal appendix group. Only six patients fulfilled the formal criteria for the diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain: 5 (8%) from the appendicitis group and 1 (5%) from the non-inflamed appendix group (not significant). In addition, no significant statistical differences were found between the groups regarding school performance, behavior and social interaction with peers.

Conclusions: We could not demonstrate an increased incidence of recurrent abdominal pain, nor could we identify significant psychosocial morbidity in those children undergoing a non-inflamed appendectomy.

July 2008
C. Hartman, D. Berkowitz, B. Weiss, R. Shaoul, A. Levine, O. Eshach Adiv, R. Shapira, A. Fradkin, M. Wilschanski, A. Tamir and R. Shamir

Background: A polymeric diet rich in transforming growth factor-beta 2 used as a single nutrient has been shown to induce remission in 79% of children with Crohn's disease.

Objectives: To summarize the experience of several pediatric gastroenterology units in Israel using a TGFβ2[1]-enriched polymeric diet (Modulen IBD) supplementation in children and adolescents with Crohn's disease.

Methods: In a retrospective study we reviewed the charts of 28 children with Crohn's disease (10 girls, 18 boys) who received, in addition to conventional treatment, Modulen IBD™ as a supplement to their regular nutrition. These children were compared with 18 children supplemented with standard polymeric formula (Ensure Plus®) and 18 children without formula supplementation. We recorded clinical manifestations, growth, and the Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index before and after initiation of the polymeric diet.

Results: The Modulen-treated children showed a significant decrease in PCDAI[2] from 34.3 to 15.7 (P < 0.0001). A significant decrease in PCDAI was recorded also in the Ensure Plus group, from 35 to 22 (P = 0.02) but not in the non-supplemented group. Significant improvements in body mass index (P = 0.01) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.03) were recorded at follow-up (median 3.4 months) only in the Modulen IBD group.

Conclusions: In this cohort of children with Crohn's disease, supplementation of the diet with Modulen IBD as well as supplementation with Ensure Plus was associated with a decrease in PCDAI. The children supplemented with Modulen IBD also showed improvement in BMI[3], suggesting an additional advantage of nutritional therapy in children with this disease.

[1] TGF-β2 = transforming growth factor-β2

[2] PCDAI = Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index

[3] BMI = body mass index

January 2006
R. Shaoul and A. Toubi

We present the case of a 14 day old baby in whom we observed the evolution of idippathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

March 2004
R. Shaoul, B. Enav, Z. Steiner, J. Mogilner and M. Jaffe

Background: Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis classically presents as projectile vomiting during the third to fourth week of life associated with good appetite. Additional classical presenting findings include palpation of the pyloric tumor, described as olive-shaped, a visible gastric peristaltic wave after feeding, and hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. It was recently claimed that this presentation has changed due to the easier access to gastrointestinal imaging.

Objective: To validate this contention and discuss possible reasons.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent pyloromyotomy for HPS[1] between 1990 and 2000. Only patients with confirmed HPS at the time of surgery were included. We also performed a comprehensive review of older studies for comparison.

Results: Seventy patients underwent pyloromyotomy over the 10 year period. Overall, 81% of patients were male infants and the mean age at diagnosis was 40 days. The mean duration of symptoms was 8 days. A firstborn child was noted in 43% of the cases. The classical symptom of projectile vomiting was absent in one-third of the patients, a pyloric tumor was not palpated in one-half of the cases, bicarbonate was higher than 28 mEq/L in 20% and a pH of above 7.45 was present in 25% of patients. Hypochloremia was noted in about one-third. We found a good correlation between ultrasonographic width and length of the pylorus and the intraoperative findings. Pylorus length ≥ 24 mm correlated with significantly longer duration of symptoms. When compared with previous studies, the main findings were not significantly different; namely, mean age at diagnosis, percentage of male gender and duration to diagnosis. The decrease in the number of pyloric tumors palpated paralleled the increase in the use of upper gastrointestinal series and ultrasonography in particular.

Conclusions: The clinical presentation of HPS has not actually changed despite the easier accessibility of GI imaging studies. However, the one significant change is the low percentage of pyloric tumors palpated, probably due to declining clinical skills, accompanied by earlier utilization of imaging studies. The use of imaging and laboratory studies did not change the age at diagnosis but may have shortened the time for diagnosis and reduced the postoperative stay. Imaging and laboratory studies may be helpful for the subgroup with a non-classical clinical presentation.

[1] HPS = hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

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