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עמוד בית
Fri, 14.06.24

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May 2021
Sagi Gleitman MD MEM, Gabby Elbaz-Greener MD MHA, Offer Amir MD FACC, and Diab Ghanim MD
June 2020
Lisa D. Amir MD MPH

Background: Rapid response teams (RRT) reduce in-hospital mortality and cardiac arrests. There are only a few articles describing RRT activations outside of North America and Australia.

Objectives: To describe demographic and clinical variables of RRT activations using 13 years of data.

Methods: Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel is a pediatric hospital with the busiest pediatric emergency department in the country. We analyzed demographic and clinical data of RRT activation from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2018.

Results: During the study period there were 614 RRT activations with an average of 55.8 activations per year (range 43–76). RRT activations occurred most commonly for children aged 0–12 months (43%) as compared to children 1–5 years of age (25%), 6–10 years of age (12%), 11–18 years of age (18%), and adults (2%). The most common reason for activation was respiratory deterioration (45.8%) followed by neurologic alteration (21%), and cardiac arrest (18%). Following resuscitation, 47% of the patients were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit and 12% were pronounced dead. Intubation was performed in 48.9% of activations, chest compressions in 20.5%, intraosseous line insertion in 9.4%, and defibrillation in 3.4%. Procedures were usually performed in the emergency department (ED).

Conclusions: We describe RRT including RRT activations in the ED. The high frequency of interventions should be utilized to direct staff training for the RRT and the ED. The lack of standardization of reporting data for RRT activations makes comparisons among hospitals difficult.

June 2018
Tamar Shalom PhD and Avichai Shuv-Ami PhD

Background: The treatment of advanced dementia patients is very complex and presents a difficult dilemma for physicians, and especially for the patient's family. In many cases, when the advanced dementia patient has no decisional capacity, the family needs to decide about force-feeding and resuscitation for their relative.

Objectives: To examine public opinion regarding force-feeding and resuscitation of patients with advanced dementia.

Methods: Data from 1002 people who accompanied a patient to a hospital emergency department in Israel were collected and analyzed.

Results: We noted the following results: the more religious the orientation of the respondents, the more likely they were to agree to forcefully feed and resuscitate advanced dementia patients and advanced dementia patients older than 80 years; those accompanying younger patients were more likely to think that the medical staff should resuscitate advanced dementia patients and advanced dementia patients older than 80 years compared to those accompanying elderly patients; younger people were more likely than older people to agree to force-feed and resuscitate patients.

Conclusions: This paper attempts to provide decision-makers and medical staff with some knowledge about public opinion regarding a sensitive and complex issue. This awareness may guide physicians in making critical medical decisions about those with dementia.

December 2017
Dante Antonelli MD, Ofir Koren MD, Menachem Nahir MD, Ehud Rozner MD, Nahum A. MD and Yoav Turgeman MD

Background: Survival of patients who were discharged from the hospital following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has not been well defined.

Objective: To verify predictor variables for prognosis of patients following OHCA who survived hospitalization.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical, demographic, and outcome data of consecutive patients who were hospitalized from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2014, into the intensive coronary care unit (ICCU) after aborted OHCA and discharged alive. The patients were followed until December 31, 2015.

Results: Of the 180 patients who were admitted into ICCU after OHCA, 64 were discharged alive (59.3%): 55 were male (85.9%), 14 died 16.5 ± 18 months after their discharge. During 1 year follow-up, nine patients (14.1%) died after a median period of 5.5 months and 55 patients (85.9 %) survived. Diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure (CRF) were more frequent in patients who died within 1 year after their hospital discharge than those who survived. Ventricular fibrillation, such as initial arrhythmia, and opening of occluded infarct related artery were more frequent in survivors.

Conclusions: Most of the patients who were discharged after OHCA were alive at the 1 year follow-up. The risk of death of cardiac arrest survivors is greatest during the first year after discharge. CRF remains a poor long-term prognostic factor beyond the patients' discharge. Ventricular fibrillation, as initial arrhythmia, and opening of occluded infarct related artery have a positive impact on long-term survival.

Jad Khatib MD, Naama Schwartz PhD and Naiel Bisharat MD PhD

Background: In 2006, the Israeli Ministry of Health distributed guidelines for improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge among hospital staff. The impact of these guidelines on survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is unclear.

Objectives: To compare rates of incidence and survival to discharge after IHCA, preceding and subsequent to issuance of the guidelines: 1995–2005 and 2006–2015.

Methods: Data were retrieved from the computerized records of patients who had an IHCA and underwent CPR. In addition, we retrieved data available from the hospital's resuscitation committee that included number, type, methods of training in CPR refresher courses, type and number of audits carried out during the past 10 years, and type of CPR quality assessments.

Results: From 1995 to 2015, IHCA incidence increased from 0.7 to 1.7 per 1000 admissions (P < 0.001), while survival rate did not increase (P = 0.37). Survival for shockable rhythms increased from 15.4 to 30.2% (P = 0.05) between the two time periods. The ratio of non-shockable to shockable rhythms increased from 2.4 to 4.6 (P = 0.01) between the two time periods.

Conclusions: Overall IHCA survival did not improve following the issuance of guidelines requiring CPR refresher courses, although survival improved for patients with initial shockable dysrhythmia. A decrease of events with initial shockable dysrhythmia, an increase with acute renal failure, and a decrease occurring in intensive care units contributed to understanding the findings. We found that CPR refresher courses were helpful, although an objective measure of their effectiveness is lacking.

 

September 2017
Sody A Naimer MD and Edward Fram MA MPhil PhD

Background: Maternal cardiac arrest during gestation constitutes a devastating event. Training and anticipant preparedness for prompt action in such cases may save the lives of both the woman and her fetus. 

Objectives: To address a previous Jewish guideline that a woman in advanced pregnancy should not undergo any medical procedure to save the fetus until her condition is stabilized. 

Methods: Current evidence on perimortal cesarean section shows that immediate section during resuscitation provides restoration of the integrity of the mother’s vascular compartment and increases her probability of survival. We analyzed Jewish scriptures from the Talmud and verdicts of the oral law and revealed that the Jewish ethical approach toward late gestational resuscitation was discouraged since it may jeopardize the mother. 

Results: We discuss the pertinent Jewish principles and their application in light of emerging scientific literature on this topic. An example case that led to an early perimortem cesarean delivery and brought about a gratifying, albeit only partially satisfying outcome, is presented, albeit with only a partially satisfying outcome. The arguments that were raised are relevant to such cases and suggest that previous judgments should be reconsidered.  

Conclusions: The Jewish perspective can guide medical personnel to modify and adapt the concrete rules to diverse clinical scenarios in light of current medical knowledge. With scientific data showing that both mother and fetus can prosper from immediate surgical extrication of the baby during resuscitation of the advanced pregnant woman, these morals should dictate training and practice in urgent perimortal cesarean sections whenever feasible. 

 

May 2017
Sa’ar Minha MD, Tali Taraboulos MD, Gabby Elbaz-Greener MD, Eran Kalmanovich MD, Zvi Vered MD and Alex Blatt MD MSc
November 2016
Yechiel Sweed MD, Jonathan Singer-Jordan MD, Sorin Papura MD, Norman Loberant MD and Alon Yulevich MD

Background: Trauma is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Abdominal bleeding is one of the common causes of mortality due to trauma. Angiography and embolization are well recognized as the primary treatments in certain cases of acute traumatic hemorrhage in adults; however, evidence is lacking in the pediatric population. 

Objectives: To assess the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for blunt and penetrating abdominal and pelvic trauma in the pediatric age group.

Methods: Three children with blunt abdominal trauma and one child with iatrogenic renal injury (age 4–13 years) were managed with TAE for lacerated liver (one patient), pelvic fractures (one patient) and renal injuries (two patients). The first two patients, victims of road accidents, had multisystem injuries and were treated by emergency embolization after fluid resuscitation in the Emergency Department (ED). The other two patients had renal injuries: a 4 year old boy with blunt abdominal trauma was diagnosed on initial computed tomography with an unexpected Wilms tumor and was treated with embolization 1 day after admission due to hemodynamic deterioration caused by active arterial tumor bleeding. The following day he underwent successful nephrectomy. The other patient was 13 year old boy with nephrotic syndrome who underwent renal biopsy and developed hemodynamic instability. After fluid resuscitation, he underwent an initial negative angiography, but second-look angiography the following day revealed active bleeding from an aberrant renal artery, which was then successfully embolized.

Results: In all four patients, TAE was diagnostic as well as therapeutic, and no child required surgical intervention for control of bleeding.

Conclusions: We propose that emergency transcatheter angiography and arterial embolization be considered following resuscitation in the ED as initial treatment in children with ongoing bleeding after blunt abdominal trauma or iatrogenic renal injury. Implementation of this policy demands availability and cooperation of the interventional radiology services. 

 

January 2016
Philippe Biderman MD, Ilya Kagan MD, Zaza Jakobishvili MD, Michael Fainblut MD, Ynon Lishetzinsky MD and Jonathan Cohen MD
October 2015
Alon Nevet MD PhD, Talia Polak MD, Ovdi Dagan MD and Yehezkel Waisman MD

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may serve as a bridge to regain cardiac function in refractory resuscitation. However, its use has so far been limited owing to low availability, especially in emergency departments. 

Objectives: To describe two children with acute myocarditis successfully treated with ECMO in the emergency department of a tertiary pediatric medical center. 

Description: The children presented with vomiting, followed by rapid deterioration to cardiogenic shock that failed to respond to conservative treatment. Given the urgency of their condition and its presumably reversible (viral) etiology, treatment with ECMO was initiated in the department’s resuscitation room. 

Results: Outcome was excellent, and cardiac function remained normal throughout 6 and 10 months follow-up. 

Conclusions: Extracorporeal life support has enormous potential in the emergency department and warrants further assessment.  

October 2013
L. Avisar, A. Shiyovich, L. Aharonson-Daniel and L. Nesher
 Background: Sudden cardiac death is the most common lethal manifestation of heart disease and often is the first and only indicator. Prompt initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) undoubtedly saves lives. Nevertheless, studies report a low competency of medical students in CPR, mainly due to deterioration of skills following training.

Objectives: To evaluate the retention of CPR skills and confidence in delivering CPR by preclinical medical students.

Methods: A questionnaire and the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) were used to assess confidence and CPR skills among preclinical, second and third-year medical students who had passed a first-aid course during their first year but were not retrained since.

Results: The study group comprised 64 students: 35 were 1 year after training and 29 were 2 years after training. The groups were demographically similar. Preparedness, recollection and confidence in delivering CPR were significantly lower in the 2 years after training group compared to those 1 year after training (P < 0.05). The mean OSCE score was 19.8 ± 5.2 (of 27) lower in those 2 years post- training than those 1 year post-training (17.8 ± 6.35 vs. 21.4 ± 3.4 respectively, P = 0.009). Only 70% passed the OSCE, considerably less in students 2 years post-training than in those 1 year post-training (52% vs. 86%, P < 0.01). Lowest retention was found in checking safety, pulse check, airway opening, rescue breathing and ventilation technique skills. A 1 year interval was chosen by 81% of the participants as the optimal interval for retraining (91% vs. 71% in the 2 years post-training group vs. the 1 year post- training group respectively, P = 0.08).

Conclusions: Confidence and CPR skills of preclinical medical students deteriorate significantly within 1 year post-training, reaching an unacceptable level 2 years post-training. We recommend refresher training at least every year.

 

January 2013
L. Sasson, I. Cohen, A. Tamir, A. Raucher Sternfeld, Y. Berlowitz, O. Lenczner and S. Houri
 Background: The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in children after cardiac surgery is well established. ECMO support is becoming an integral tool for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in specified centers.

Objectives: To review our use of ECMO over a 10 year period.

Methods: All children supported with ECMO from 2000 to 2010 were reviewed. Most of these children suffered from cardiac anomalies. The patients were analyzed by age, weight, procedure, RACHS-1 when appropriate, length of support, and outcome.

Results: Sixty-two children were supported with ECMO; their median age was 3 months (range 0–216 months) and median weight 4.3 kg (range 1.9–51 kg). Thirty-four patients (52.3%) needed additional hemofiltration or dialysis due to renal failure. The children requiring ECMO support represented a wide spectrum of cardiac lesions; the most common procedure was arterial switch operation 27.4% (n=17). ECMO was required mainly for failure to separate from the heart-lung machine (n=55). The median duration of ECMO support was 4 days (range 1–14 days); 29 (46.7%) patients were weaned successfully from ECMO during this time period, and 5 of them died during hospitalization, yielding an overall hospital survival rate of 38.7%.

Conclusions: ECMO support has significant survival benefit for patients with post-cardiotomy heart failure. Its early deployment should be considered in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

May 2011
June 2010
O. Wacht, K. Dopelt, Y. Snir and N. Davidovitch

Background: While family presence during resuscination has been researched extensively in the international and especially American medical literature, in Israel this subject has rarely been researched. Because such policies have become common practice in many countries, it is important to investigate the attitudes of health care staff in Israeli emergency departments to better understand the potential implication of adopting such policies.

Objectives: To examine the attitudes of the physicians and nurses in the ED of Soroka Medical Center to FPDR[1]. 

Methods: The methods we used were both qualitative (partly structured open interviews of 10 ED staff members from various medical professions) and quantitative (an anonymous questionnaire that collected sociodemographic, professional, and attitude data).

Results: The qualitative and quantitative results showed that most staff members opposed FPDR. The main reasons for objecting to FPDR were concern about family criticism, the added pressure that would be put on the staff members, fear of lawsuits, fear of hurting the feelings of the families, and the danger of losing one’s objectivity while treating patients. Physicians objected more strongly to FPDR than did nurses.  

Conclusions: More research is needed on FPDR in Israel, including an examination of its medical, ethical, legal and logistic aspects. In addition to the views of the medical staff, the attitudes of patients and their families should also be examined.

 
 

[1] FPDR = family presence during resuscitation

 


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