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עמוד בית
Sun, 21.04.24

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December 2018
Sorel Goland MD, Irena Fugenfirov MD, Igor Volodarsky MD, Hadass Aronson MD, Liaz Zilberman MD, Sara Shimoni MD and Jacob George MD

Background: Early identification of patients with a likelihood of cardiac improvement has important implications for management strategies.

Objectives: To evaluate whether tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and two-dimensional (2D) strain measures may predict left ventricular (LV) improvement in patients with recent onset dilated cardiomyopathy (ROCM).

Methods: Clinical and comprehensive echo were performed at baseline and at 6 months. Patients who achieved an increase of ≥ 10 LV ejection fraction (LVEF) units and LV reverse remodeling (LVRR) (group 1) and those who improved beyond the device threshold achieving LVEF of ≥ 0.40 (group 2) were compared to patients who did not improve to this level.

Results: Among 37 patients with ROCM (mean age 56.3 ± 12.9 years and LVEF 29.1 ± 7.0%), 48% achieved LVEF ≥ 0.40 and 37.8% demonstrated LVRR. Patients with LVEF improvement ≥ 40% presented at diagnosis with higher LVEF (P = 0.006), smaller LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd) (P = 0.04), higher E’ septal (P = 0.02), lower E/E’ ratio (P = 0.02), increased circumferential strain (P = 0.04), and apical rotation (P = 0.009). Apical rotation and LVEDd were found to be independent predictors of LVRR. End-systolic LV volume was a significant predictor of LVEF improvement (≥ 40%).

Conclusions: Nearly half of the patients with ROCM demonstrated cardiac function improvement beyond the device threshold by 6 months. Apical rotation was introduced in our study as 2D strain prognostic parameter and found to be an independent predictor of LVRR. LV size and volume were predictors of LV improvement.

July 2014
Michael Arad MD, Tamar Nussbaum MD, Ido Blechman BA, Micha S. Feinberg MD, Nira Koren-Morag PhD,Yael Peled MD and Dov Freimark MD

Background: Contemporary therapies improve prognosis and may restore left ventricular (LV) size and function.

Objectives: To examine the prevalence, clinical features and therapies associated with reverse remodeling (RR) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Methods: The study group comprised 188 DCM patients who had undergone two echo examinations at least 6 months apart. RR was defined as increased LV ejection fraction (LVEF) by ≥ 10% concomitant with ≥ 10% decreased LV end-diastolic dimension.

Results: RR occurred in 50 patients (26%) and was associated with significantly reduced end-systolic dimension, left atrial size, grade of mitral regurgitation, and pulmonary artery pressure. NYHA class improved in the RR group. RR was less common in familial DCM and a long-standing disease and was more prevalent in patients with prior exposure to chemotherapy. Recent-onset disease, lower initial LVEF and normal electrocardiogram were identified as independent predictors of RR. Beta-blocker dose was related to improved LVEF but not to RR. Over a mean follow-up of 23 months, 16 patients (12%) from the 'no-RR' group died or underwent heart transplantation compared to none from the RR group (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Contemporary therapies led to an an improvement in the condition of a considerable number of DCM patients. A period of close observation while optimizing medical therapy should be considered before deciding on invasive procedures. 

January 2014
Itai Horowitz, Carlos Cafri, Lior Zeller, Alina Vodonos, Zvi H. Perry and Sergio L. Kobal
Background: The effects of exercise training on cardiac structure and function have been thoroughly investigated in athletes from sport-developed nations; few data are available on sportsmen from sport-developing countries.

Objectives: To assess the incidence and magnitude of the "athlete heart" phenomenon in an elite group of Israeli cyclists.

Methods: An echocardiography study was performed in 56 cyclists (49 males, mean age 38 ± 10 years, weekly average training 13.1 ± 5.9 hours); 96 sedentary subjects served as a control group.

Results: There were significant differences in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) between cyclists and the control group (48 ± 4.7 mm vs. 45 ± 4.1 mm respectively, P < 0.001), as well as in inter-ventricular septum (IVS) thickness (9.9 ± 1.2 vs. 8.9 ± 1.2 mm, P < 0.001) and LV mass index (LVMI) (79 ± 16 vs. 68 ± 13 g/m2, P < 0.001). In 5% of the cyclists LVEDD exceeded the upper normal limit of 56 mm. In 7% of the cyclists IVS thickness exceeded the upper normal limit of 11 mm. LV hypertrophy defined as LVMI 134 g/m2 was absent in the entire cyclist group.

Conclusions: Endurance sport activity in well-trained Israeli sportsmen results in a modest increment in LV dimensions and LV mass. LV dilatation and wall thickness above values compatible with primary cardiac disease are rare. These results highlight that in Israeli athletes any abnormal echocardiographic value must be thoroughly investigated and not simply assumed to be a consequence of sport activities.

April 2013
S. Sclarovsky
 In acute myocardial ischemic syndrome the electrocardiogram is capable of providing sophisticated information on coronary artery anatomy (the culprit artery, the level of obstruction, the arterial dimension), along with the hemodynamics, molecular biological characteristics and ionic changes that occur in the involved and uninvolved ischemic musculature. In acute myocardial ischemia, during a sudden obstruction of a distal co-dominant right coronary artery the ECG may be able to discriminate between physiological and pathological remodeling, providing predictive information to differentiate low from high risk cases during acute inferior wall infarction.


April 2010
A. Hamdan, R. Kornowski, E.I. Lev, A. Sagie, S. Fuchs, D. Brosh, A. Battler and A.R Assali

Background: Myocardial blush grade is a useful marker of microvascular reperfusion that may influence left ventricular dilatation.

Objectives: To assess the impact of myocardial blush grade on LV[1] remodeling in patients undergoing successful primary  PCI³ for first anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction.

Methods: In 26 consecutive patients MB[2] grade was evaluated immediately after primary PCI[3]. Each patient underwent transthoracic echocardiography at 24 hours and 6 months after PCI for evaluation of LV volumes. LV remodeling was defined as an increase in end-diastolic volume by ≥ 20%.

Results: The presence of myocardial reperfusion (MB 2-3) after primary PCI was associated with a significantly lower rate of remodeling than the absence of myocardial reperfusion (MB 0-1) (17.6% vs. 66.6%, P = 0.012). Accordingly, at 6 months, patients with MB 2-3 had significantly smaller LV end-diastolic volume (94 ± 21.5 ml vs. 115.2 ± 26) compared with patients with MB 0-1. In univariate analysis, only MB (0-1 versus 2-3) was associated with increased risk of LV remodeling (odds ratio 9.3, 95% confidence interval 1.45–60.21, P = 0.019).

Conclusions: Impaired microvascular reperfusion, as assessed by MB 0-1, may be associated with LV remodeling in patients with STEMI[4] treated successfully with primary PCI.


[1] LV = left ventricular

[2] MB = myocardial blush

[3] PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention

[4] STEMI = ST elevation myocardial infarction

March 2008
B. Sheick-Yousif, A. Sheinfield, S. Tager, P. Ghosh, S. Priesman, A.K. Smolinsky and E. Raanani

Background: As the shortcomings of the Bentall operation and its variants in the Marfan syndrome have become apparent, the recent cusp-sparing techniques (remodeling or reimplantation) bear promise of better mid-term and long-term outcomes.

Objective: To examine the results of aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome.

Methods: During the period March 1994 to September 2007, 220 patients underwent aortic valve-sparing surgery; 20 were Marfan patients (group 1) who were compared with another 20 Marfan patients undergoing composite aortic root replacement (group 2). Fourteen patients had aortic dissection and 26 had thoracic aortic aneurysm. There were 31 males and 9 females with a mean age of 37.9 ± 13.8 years. In group 1, reimplantation was used in 13 patients, remodeling in 4, and aortic valve repair with sinotubular junction replacement in 3. In group 2, a mechanical valve conduit was used. Mean logistic Euroscore was 12.27 ± 14.6% for the whole group, five of whom were emergent cases

Results: Group 2 had more previous cardiac procedures compared to group 1 (9 vs. 2, P = 0.03) and shorter cross-clamp time (122 ± 27.1 vs. 153.9 ± 23.7 minutes, P = 0.0004). Overall mortality was 10%. Early mortality was 10% in group 2 and 5% in group 1(NS). Mean follow-up time was 25 months for group 2 and 53 months for group 1. Three patients were reoperated; all had undergone the remodeling. Five year freedom from reoperation and death was 86% and 90% in group 2 and 70% and 95% in group 1 (P = 0.6, P = 0.6), respectively.

Conclusions: Late survival of patients with Marfan syndrome was similar in both groups. Root reconstruction tends towards a higher incidence of late reoperations if the remodeling technique is used. We now prefer to use the reimplantation technique.

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