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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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June 2015
Hashem Bishara MD MPH, Noam Goldstein MD, Marwan Hakim MD, Olga Vinitsky MD MPH, Danit Shechter-Amram RN and Daniel Weiler-Ravell MD

Background: Atypical presentation of tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy may cause diagnostic delay and adversely influence pregnancy outcome. 

Objectives: To examine the incidence and clinical and epidemiological features of TB during pregnancy and investigate infection control measures at delivery and during the postpartum period.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all reported cases of TB diagnosed during pregnancy to 6 months postpartum in Israel’s Northern Health District (2002–2012). 

Results: Active TB was detected in six patients; all were negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Two patients were diagnosed in the postpartum period, and four had pulmonary involvement. The average incidence during this period (3.9 per 100,000 pregnancies) was similar to that in the general population. Five patients were at high risk of contracting TB due to either recent immigration from a high-burden country or being in contact with another individual with active TB. Patients with pleuropulmonary involvement had prolonged cough and abnormal chest X-rays, without fever. Diagnosis was delayed for 3 to 7 months from symptom onset. Investigation of the newborn to rule out intrauterine infection was conducted in only one of four relevant cases. All patients were infected with organisms susceptible to all first-line drugs, and all were cured with standard therapy.

Conclusions: There was a considerable delay in the diagnosis of TB among pregnant women, and investigation of the newborn upon delivery to rule out TB infection was routinely omitted. Effective management of TB during pregnancy and the postpartum period requires a multidisciplinary approach including an obstetrician, pediatrician, TB specialist, and public health physician.

 

January 2006
D. Chemtob, D. Weiler-Ravell, A. Leventhal, H. Bibi

Background: During the last decade, Israel, a country with low tuberculosis rates, absorbed some 900,000 new immigrants from TB[1]-endemic countries.

Objectives: To analyze the specific impact of our screening procedures on active TB among children in Israel.


Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of epidemiologic and clinical data of all children (aged 0–17) with TB notified to the Ministry of Health between 1990 and 1999.


Results: There were 479 children with TB (male/female ratio 1.36). Most cases (81.8%) were foreign born, predominantly (88.2%) immigrants from Ethiopia and, therefore, huge differences existed in TB incidence rates according to countries of origin. Some 80% were diagnosed within 3 years of arrival, mainly due to active case-finding. Pulmonary TB, with infiltrates on chest X-ray, was found in 49.5%. Extra-pulmonary TB sites were: intra-thoracic lymphadenitis (31.1%), extra-thoracic lymphadenitis (12.5%), bones (3.6%), pleura (1.3%), meninges (1%), and others (1%). Seventy percent had a tuberculin skin test reaction ≥10 mm in size. Two (non-immigrant) children died of TB meningitis.


Conclusions: Most of the pediatric TB cases occurred in recent immigrants and were diagnosed within 3 years of immigration. These data support our policy of active case-finding among new immigrants from Ethiopia and extensive contact evaluation for all TB cases.






[1] TB = tuberculosis


January 2002
Haim Bibi MD, Daniel Weiler-Ravell MD, David Shoseyov MD, Ilana Feigin MD, Yael Arbelli RN and Daniel Chemtob MD MPH DEA

Background: One of the measures adopted in Israel since 1959 as part of the tuberculosis control program was screening children aged 12–13 years old. The screening comprised single-step tuberculin skin testing using the Mantoux method.

Objective: To assess the efficacy of tuberculin skin screening for TB[1] in schoolchildren in southwestern Israel as well as the compliance to treatment for latent tuberculosis infection.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of children in the Ashkelon region who underwent a tuberculin skin test during the period 1995–99.

Results: Of the 28,016 eligible children, 27,232 were tested. In 923 children, mostly from the former USSR and Ethiopia, an induration of 10 mm or more was found. Only 52 Israeli-born children tested positive. Tuberculosis was found in seven children with a positive test, five of whom were from Ethiopia. All children who tested positive were referred to the local TB clinic; only 266 children (28.8%) presented. Only 151 completed the recommended treatment of isoniazid for 6 months. Thus, although screening included most of the targeted children aged 13, only a third of them presented to a TB clinic, of whom only about half completed treatment of latent infection.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the current policy of screening for latent TB in our region is ineffective in terms of implementation of the recommended treatment. We suggest that only high risk groups be screened, and that a concerted effort be made to implement treatment.

_______________________


[1] TB = tuberculosis

July 2001
Daniel Chemtob, MD, MPH, DEA, Leon Epstein, MD, MPH, Paul E. Slater, MD, MPH and Daniel Weiler-Ravell, MD
Background: Sensing an inadequacy of tuberculosis control due to an influx of TB associated with immigration, we analyzed TB treatment outcome in Israel by population groups.

Objectives:
To provide an epidemiological basis necessary for any new national TB control policy, and to bring it to the attention of the medical profession in Israel and abroad since its results led to a change in Israel’s TB control policy.

Methods:
We reviewed all TB cases notified during the period 1990 to September 1992. New cases” (820 cases, 93.5%) and “re-treatment cases” (57 cases, 6.5%) were analyzed according to three mutually exclusive groups: “successful outcome,” “death” and “potentially unsatisfactory outcome” (according to WHO/IUATLD definitions).

Results:
Of 820 “new cases,” 26.6% had a satisfactory outcome,” 68.5% had a “potentially unsatisfactory outcome” and 4.9% died compared to 47.4%, 45.6% and 7% among 57 “re-treatment cases,” respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, outcome was associated with the district health office (P<0.0001), the TB experience” of the notifying clinic (P<0.0001), and the form of TB (P=0.02). No significant relationships were obtained for population groups, gender and age, interval between arrival in Israel and TB notification, and bacteriological results.
Daniel Chemtob, MD, MPH, DEA, Leon Epstein, MD, MPH, Paul E. Slater, MD, MPH and Daniel Weiler-Ravell, MD

Background: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae comprise the majority of spinal vascular malformations. The most common clinical presentation is that of progressive myelor­adicuiopathy, probably related to venous hypertension, which may lead to permanent disability and even death.

Objective: To report our clinical experience with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae.

Methods: Nine patients with spinal dural AVF were managed at our center during a one year period (1998-1999). The patients, eight men and one woman ranging in age from 46 to 75 years, presented with initially fluctuating and eventually permanent and progressive paraparesis, sensory disturbances and sphincter dysfunction. The neurological signs generally began symmetrically and progressed from the distal to proximal limb regions. The duration of symptoms before diagnosis ranged from 6 to 36 months during which the patients underwent an extensive but fruitless work-up and even unnecessary operations due to misdiagnosis. All patients finally underwent magnetic resonance imaging and spinal angiography, which demonstrated the pathological vascular fistula. Interruption of the AVF was achieved by embolization or by surgical resection.

Results: Following treatment, six patients experienced improvement of gait and sphincter control, and the severe neurological deficits stabilized in the other three patients with long duration of illness. There was no further deterioration in any of the treated patients.

Conclusions: The history, neurological findings and radiological changes on MRI scan should alert clinicians to the possibility of spinal dural AVF, leading to diagnostic spinal angiography. Early diagnosis and treatment may significantly improve outcome and prevent permanent disability and even mortality.

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