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עמוד בית
Tue, 16.04.24

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March 2023
Elena Chernomordikov MD, Keren Rouvinov MD, Wilmosh Mermershtain MD, Konstantin Lavrenkov MD PhD

Background: Bicalutamide monotherapy (BMT) is an option for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer (LIR-PC). Painful gynecomastia (PG) is a common side effect of BMT. Few therapeutic options are available for preventing BMT-induced PG.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and side effects of single fraction (SF) prophylactic breast irradiation (PBI) to prevent painful gynecomastia (PG) in patients LIR-PC treated with BMT.

Methods: We reviewed the results of bilateral PBI in a prospective cohort of LIR-PC patients who received 150 mg bicalutamide daily as a first-line treatment for at least 12 months. A single fraction of 8 Gy was administered to both breasts by a stationary field of 10 × 10 cm, using 10–15 MeV electron beam. PBI was commenced on the same day as BMT, but prior to the first dose of bicalutamide. A radiotherapy treatment plan was designed to cover breast tissue by the 90% isodose line. Subsequent monthly physical examinations were scheduled for all patients during the first year of BMT to evaluate any PG symptoms.

Results: Seventy-six patients received BMT and PBI, 80% (61/76) showed no signs of PG; 20% (15/76) experienced mild gynecomastia. The main adverse effect of PBI was grade 1 radiation dermatitis.

Conclusions: PBI using a SF of 8 Gy is an effective, safe, and low-cost strategy for the prevention of BMT-induced PG in LIR-PC patients.

March 2022
Filipe Cirne MD, Som D. Mukherjee MD, Jehonathan Pinthus MD, Darryl P. Leong MBBS

Increased life expectancy due to improved cancer prognosis, shared determinants (e.g., tobacco use), and cardiovascular toxicities related to cancer therapies, including the adverse cardiometabolic effects of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, make cardiovascular disease an frequent and important co-morbidity in patients with a genitourinary malignancy. Complex cardiovascular disease can pose significant challenges in the management of these patients given the uncertainties related to the best approach to reconcile ischemic and bleeding risks, and the role of invasive cardiovascular interventions in individuals with advanced cancer. In this review, we discuss the current evidence that informs decision-making in this clinical context.

December 2021
Yuval Avda MD, Jonathan Modai MD, Igal Shpunt MD, Michael Dinerman MD, Yaniv Shilo MD, Roy Croock MD, Morad Jaber MD, Uri Lindner MD, and Dan Leibovici MD

Background: Patients with high-risk prostate cancer are at higher risk of treatment failure, development of metastatic disease, and mortality. There is no consensus on the treatment of choice for these patients, and either radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is recommended. Surgery is less common as the initial treatment for high-risk patients, possibly reflecting the concerns regarding morbidity as well as oncological and functional outcomes. Another high-risk group includes patients with failure of previous EBRT or focal treatment. For these patients, salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) can be offered.

Objectives: To describe our experience with surgery of high-risk patients and SRP.

Methods: This cohort included all high-risk patients undergoing RP or SRP at our institution between January 2012 and December 2019. We reviewed the electronic medical charts and collected pathological, functional, and oncological outcomes.

Results: Our cohort included 39 patients; average age was 67.8 years, and average follow-up duration was 40.9 months. The most common postoperative morbidity was transfusion of packed cells. There were no life-threatening events or postoperative mortality. Continence was preserved (zero to one pad) in 76% of the patients. Twenty-three patients (59%) had undetectable prostate specific antigen levels following the surgery, 11 (30%) were treated with either adjuvant or salvage EBRT, and 12 patients (31%) were found with no evidence of disease and no additional treatment was needed.

Conclusions: Radical prostatectomy and SRP are safe options for patients presenting with high-risk prostate cancer, with good functional and oncological outcomes.

February 2021
Dorit E. Zilberman MD, Yasmin Abu-Ghanem MD, Gil Raviv MD, Barak Rosenzweig MD, Eddie Fridman MD, Orith Portnoy MD, and Zohar A Dotan MD PhD

Background: Little is known about oncologic outcomes following robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy (RALP) for clinical T3 (cT3) prostate cancer.

Objectives: To investigate oncologic outcomes of patients with cT3 prostate cancer treated by RALP.

Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent RALP from 2010 to 2018 were retrieved. cT3 cases were reviewed. Demographic and pre/postoperative pathology data were analyzed. Patients were followed in 3–6 month intervals with repeat PSA analyses. Adjuvant/salvage treatments were monitored. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) meant PSA levels of ≥ 0.2 ng/ml.

Results: Seventy-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Median age at surgery was 64 years. Preoperative PSA level was 7.14 ng/dl, median prostate weight was 54 grams, and 23 cases (29.1%) were down-staged to pathological stage T2. Positive surgical margin rate was 42%. Five patients were lost to follow-up. Median follow-up time for the remaining 74 patients was 24 months. Postoperative relapse in PSA levels occurred in 31 patients (42%), and BCR in 28 (38%). Median time to BCR was 9 months. The overall 5-year BCR-free survival rate was 61%. Predicting factors for BCR were age (hazard-ratio [HR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.74–0.97, P = 0.017) and prostate weight (HR 1.04, 95%CI 1.01–1.08, P = 0.021). Twenty-six patients (35%) received adjuvant/salvage treatments. Three patients died from metastatic prostate cancer 31, 52, and 78 months post-surgery. Another patient died 6 months post-surgery of unknown reasons. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 92%.

Conclusions: RALP is an oncologic effective procedure for cT3 prostate cancer. Adjuvant/salvage treatment is needed to achieve optimal disease-control

February 2019
Jonathan Kuten MD MHA, Nicola J. Mabjeesh MD PhD, Hedva Lerman MD, Charles Levine MD, Sophie Barnes MD and Einat Even-Sapir MD PhD

Background: Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (Ga-PSMA PET/CT) is part of the initial workup of patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer provided by the Israeli national health services.

Objectives: To assess the incidence of metastatic spread in consecutive patients with newly diagnosed cancer, and the potential added value of Ga-PSMA PET/CT to the staging imaging algorithm.

Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer were referred for initial staging by Ga-PSMA PET/CT between May 2016 and April 2017. Blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, clinical history, imaging reports and histopathological reports (including Gleason scores) were obtained. Maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were determined for the primary lesions detected within the prostate.

Results: The study included 137 consecutive patients with intermediate- and high-risk disease who underwent Ga-PSMA PET/CT staging. Of these, 75 had Ga-PSMA uptake in both prostate lobes, 57 had unilateral uptake, and 5 patients had no uptake. SUVmax in the primary tumor correlated significantly with PSA levels. Thirty-five patients had increased uptake compatible with metastatic disease involving lymph nodes, bone, and viscera. Twenty-seven patients had available bone scintigraphy results: 18 (69%) of their 26 bone metastases detected by Ga-PSMA PET/CT were missed on bone scintigraphy.

Conclusions: Ga-PSMA PET/CT shows promise as a sole whole-body imaging modality for assessing the presence of soft tissue and bone metastases in the setting of prostate cancer.

July 2016
David Yardeni MD, Ori Galante MD, Lior Fuchs MD, Daniela Munteanu MD, Wilmosh Mermershtain MD, Ruthy Shaco-Levy MD and Yaniv Almog MD
January 2016
Tamara Kushnir MA, Ofer N. Gofrit MD, Ruth Elkayam MA, Shani Shimon-Paluch MD, Yaacov R. Lawrence MBBS MRCP, Ilana Weiss MA and Zvi Symon MD

Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) added to radiation therapy (RT) in intermediate to high risk prostate cancer negatively impacts quality of life. 

Objectives: To compare health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in patients receiving combined RT with and without ADT 

Methods: The study population comprised patients treated with definitive RT for prostate cancer who completed the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 form between 3 and 24 months after completing RT. Covariance and a stepwise backward logistic regression model was used. 

Results: Data were available for 143 patients who received RT+ADT and 70 who received RT alone. The sexual function and hormonal vitality scores of patients receiving RT+ADT were significantly lower than those receiving RT alone (P < 0.0001). Patients with only compulsory school education had significantly lower sexual function scores than patients with university level education (P ≤ 0.005). Patients with depression had significantly lower hormonal vitality scores than those without depression (P ≤ 0.0001). 

Conclusions: The addition of ADT to RT is responsible for decrements in quality of life in the sexual and hormonal vitality domains, which is further compounded by lack of education and depression. This underlines the need to improve education, identify and treat depression, and develop strategies to improve the quality of life of patients receiving combination therapy. 

 

June 2015
Emily Lubart MD, Alexandra Yarovoy MD, Gilad Gal PhD, Ricardo Krakover MD and Arthur Leibovitz MD

Background: QT segment prolongation is a high risk factor for fatal arrhythmias. Several studies have indicated a possible relation between low testosterone levels and QT interval prolongation. 

Objectives: To compare the QT interval length in elderly patients with prostate carcinoma who were on anti-testosterone treatment and those who were not.

Methods: We screened the electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 100 prostate cancer patients divided into two groups: 50 patients on anti-testosterone drug treatment and 50 patients not. QT interval length was measured according to the accepted methods.

Results: The mean QTc 12 leads in the entire group was 0.45 ± 0.04 sec, which is close to the upper limit. Mean QTc was actually longer in the control group and there was no QTc difference between the groups after adjustment for possible confounders. Prolonged QTc 12-lead ECG (48% in treated and 54% in non-treated) and lead L2 QT interval (50% in treated and 56% in non-treated) did not differ significantly between the groups. The analysis of QTc 12-lead ECG indicated no significant effects of anti-testosterone drug treatment. Only the use of furosemide was associated with QT prolongation. 

Conclusions: The results of this preliminary study do not support our initial concern of an alarmingly prolonged QT interval in the anti-testosterone treated group. However, further prospectively designed studies are needed. In the meanwhile we call for a close follow-up of the QT interval length in patients receiving anti-testosterone treatment. 

 

July 2013
D. Leibovici, S. Shikanov, O.N. Gofrit, G.P. Zagaja, Y. Shilo and A.L. Shalhav
 Background: Recommendations for active surveillance versus immediate treatment for low risk prostate cancer are based on biopsy and clinical data, assuming that a low volume of well-differentiated carcinoma will be associated will a low progression risk. However, the accuracy of clinical prediction of minimal prostate cancer (MPC) is unclear.

Objectives: To define preoperative predictors for MPC in prostatectomy specimens and to examine the accuracy of such prediction.

Methods: Data collected on 1526 consecutive radical prostatectomy patients operated in a single center between 2003 and 2008 included: age, body mass index, preoperative prostate-specific antigen level, biopsy Gleason score, clinical stage, percentage of positive biopsy cores, and maximal core length (MCL) involvement. MPC was defined as < 5% of prostate volume involvement with organ-confined Gleason score ≤ 6. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to define independent predictors of minimal disease. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was used to define cutoff values for the predictors and measure the accuracy of prediction.

Results: MPC was found in 241 patients (15.8%). Clinical stage, biopsy Gleason`s score, percent of positive biopsy cores, and maximal involved core length were associated with minimal disease (OR 0.42, 0.1, 0.92, and 0.9, respectively). Independent predictors of MPC included: biopsy Gleason score, percent of positive cores and MCL (OR 0.21, 095 and 0.95, respectively). CART showed that when the MCL exceeded 11.5%, the likelihood of MPC was 3.8%. ;Conversely, when applying the most favorable preoperative conditions (Gleason ≤ 6, < 20% positive cores, MCL ≤ 11.5%) the chance of minimal disease was 41%.

Conclusions: Biopsy Gleason score, the percent of positive cores and MCL are independently associated with MPC. While preoperative prediction of significant prostate cancer was accurate, clinical prediction of MPC was incorrect 59% of the time. Caution is necessary when implementing clinical data as selection criteria for active surveillance. 

March 2013
S. Eilat-Tsanani, H. Tabenkin, J. Shental, I. Elmaleh and D. Steinmtz
 Background: Radical prostatectomy is one option for treating localized prostate cancer, but it can cause functional impairment of the urogenital system.

Objectives: To describe the outcomes of radical prostatectomy as perceived by the patients, and their ways of coping with them.

Methods: We conducted a qualitative study of 22 men with localized prostatic cancer 1 year after surgery. The key questions related to the effect of the disease and the surgery on their lives and their view on the value of the surgery.

Results: The surgery was perceived as a necessary solution for the diagnosed cancer. All the participants suffered from varying degrees of urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Urinary incontinence caused severe suffering. The impaired sexual ability affected relations with partners and led to feelings of shame and guilt and a decreased sense of self-esteem. In retrospect, the participants still viewed the surgery as a life-saving procedure. Faith in the surgeon contributed to their affirmation of the decision to undergo surgery despite the difficulties.

Conclusions: Patients were prepared to suffer the inevitable physical and psychological sequelae of radical prostatectomy because they believed the surgery to be a definitive solution for cancer. Surgeons advising patients with localized prostatic cancer on treatment options should address these difficult issues and provide psychological support, either themselves or in collaboration with professionals.

 

October 2003
A. Figer, T. Friedman, A.E. Manguoglu, D. Flex, A. Vazina, I. Novikov, A. Shtrieker, A.A. Sidi, T. Tichler, E. Even Sapir, J. Baniel and E. Friedman

Background: The precise genes involved in conferring prostate cancer risk in sporadic and familial cases are not fully known.

Objectives: To evlauate the genetic profile within several candidate genes of unselected prostate cancer cases and to correlate this profile with disease parameters.

Methods: Jewish Israeli prostate cancer patients (n=224) were genotyped for polymorphisms within candidate genes: p53, ER, VDR, GSTT1, CYP1A1, GSTP1, GSTM1, EPHX and HPC2/ELAC2, followed by analysis of the genotype with relevant clinical and pathologic parameters.

Results: The EPHX gene His113 allele was detected in 21.4% (33/154) of patients in whom disease was diagnosed above 61 years, compared with 5.7% (4/70) in earlier onset disease (P < 0.001). Within the group of late-onset disease, the same allele was noted in 5.5% (2/36) with grade I tumors compared with 18% (34/188) with grade II and up (P = 0.004). All other tested polymorphisms were not associated with a distinct clinical or pathologic feature in a statistically significant manner.

Conclusions: In Israeli prostate cancer patients, the EPHX His113 allele is seemingly associated with a more advanced, late-onset disease. These preliminary data need to be confirmed by a larger and more ethnically diverse study.

July 2001
Dan Leibovici, MD, Amnon Zisman, MD, Yoram I. Siegel, MD and Arie Lindner, MD

Background: Cryosurgery is a minimally invasive treat­ment option for prostate cancer.

Objectives: To report on the first series of cryosurgical ablation for prostate cancer performed in Israel.

Methods: Cryosurgical ablation of the prostate was undertaken in 2 patients aged 53-72 diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The procedures were performed percutaneously and were monitored by real-time trans-rectal ultrasound. The CRYOHIT machine applying Argon gas was used with standard or ultra-thin cryoprobes. The average follow-up was 12.8 months postsurgery (range 1- 24 months).

Results: No rectal or urethral injuries occurred and all patients were discharged from hospital within 24-48 hours. The duration of suprapubic drainage was 14 days in 10 patients and prolonged in 2. Early complications included penoscrotal edema in four patients, perineal hematoma in three, hemorrhoids in two and epidydimitis in one. Long-term complications included extensive prostatic sloughing in one patient and a perineal fistula in another, both of whom required prolonged suprapubic drainage. Minimal stress incontinence was noted in two patients for the first 8 weeks after surgery. None of the patients has yet regained spontaneous potency. A prostate-specific antigen nadir of less than 0.5 ng/ml was achieved in eight patients and an undetectable PSA level below 0.1 ng/ml in five patients.

Conclusion: Cryoablation for prostate cancer is safe and feasible, and the preliminary results are encouraging. Further study is needed to elucidate the efficacy of the procedure.

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