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עמוד בית
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October 2018
Nasser Sakran MD, Doron Kopelman MD, Ron Dar MD, Nael Abaya MD, Shams-Eldin Mokary MD, Chovav Handler MD and Dan D. Hershko MD

Background: Recent studies have suggested that urgent cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment for acute cholecystitis. However, initial conservative treatment followed by delayed elective surgery is still common practice in many medical centers.

Objectives: To determine the effect of percutaneous cholecystostomy on surgical outcome in patients undergoing delayed elective cholecystectomy.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients admitted to our medical center with acute cholecystitis who were treated by conservative treatment followed by delayed cholecystectomy between 2004 and 2013. Logistic regression was calculated to assess the association of percutaneous cholecystostomy with patient characteristics, planned surgical procedure, and the clinical and surgical outcomes.

Results: We identified 370 patients. Of these, 134 patients (36%) underwent cholecystostomy during the conservative treatment period. Patients who underwent cholecystostomy were older and at higher risk for surgery. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was offered to 92% of all patients, yet assignment to the open surgical approach was more common in the cholecystostomy group (16% vs. 3%). Cholecystostomy was associated with significantly higher conversion rates to open approach (26% vs. 13%) but was not associated with longer operative time, hemorrhage, surgical infections, or bile duct or organ injuries.

Conclusions: Treatment with cholecystostomy is associated with higher conversion rates but does not include other major operative-related complications or poorer clinical outcome.

December 2009
O. Barak, R. Elazary, L. Appelbaum, A. Rivkind and G. Almogy

Background: Current treatment options for acute calculous cholecystitis include either early cholecystectomy, or conservative treatment consisting of intravenous antibiotics and an interval cholecystectomy several weeks later. Percutaneous drainage is reserved for patients in whom conservative therapy failed or as a salvage procedure for high risk patients.

Objective: To identify clinical and radiographic factors leading to failure of conservative treatment.

Methods: We prospectively collected data on consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Parameters were compared between patients who were successfully treated conservatively and those who required percutaneous cholecystostomy. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors for failure of conservative treatment. 

Results: The study population comprised 103 patients with a median age of 60 who were treated for acute cholecystitis. Twenty-seven patients (26.2%) required PC[1]. On univariate analysis, age above 70 years, diabetes, elevated white blood cell count, tachycardia (> 100 beats/min) at admission, and a distended gallbladder (> 5 cm transverse diameter) were found to be significantly more common in the PC group (P < 0.001). WBC[2] was higher in the PC group throughout the initial 48 hours. On multivariate analysis, age above 70 (odds ratio 3.6), diabetes (OR[3] 9.4), tachycardia at admission (OR 5.6), and a distended gallbladder (OR 8.5) were predictors for cholecystostomy (P < 0.001). Age above 70 (OR 5.2) and WBC > 15,000 (OR 13.7) were predictors for failure of conservative treatment after 24 and 48 hours (P < 0.001). 

Conclusions: Age above 70, diabetes, and a distended gallbladder are predictors for failure of conservative treatment and such patients should be considered for early cholecystostomy. Persistently elevated WBC (> 15,000) suggests refractory disease and should play a central role in the clinical follow-up and decision-making process for elderly patients with acute cholecystitis.


 




[1] PC = percutaneous cholecystostomy



[2] WBC = white blood cells



[3] OR = odds ratio


March 2003
I. Hadas-Halpern, M. Patlas, M. Knizhnik, I. Zaghal and D. Fisher

Background: The mainstay of therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy, which has a mortality of 14–30% in high risk patients. An alternative approach in patients suffering from acute cholecystitis with contraindications to emergency surgery is percutaneous cholecystostomy.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous cholecystostomy as the initial treatment of acute cholecystitis in high risk patients.

Methods: Eighty consecutive patients (42 men, 38 women) underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous cholecystostomy over a 5 year period. Sixty-five patients suffered from acute calculous cholecystitis, 4 patients had acalculous cholecystitis, and 11 patients had sepsis of unknown origin.

Results: Sixty-eight patients improved after the percutaneous gallbladder drainage, 10 patients died from co-morbid disease and 2 patients died from biliary peritonitis. During a 1 year follow-up, 32 of the patients underwent interval cholecystectomy, 4 additional patients died from a co-morbid disease, 18 patients did not suffer from any gallbladder symptoms, and 14 were lost to follow-up.

Conclusions: Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an effective contribution to the treatment of acute cholecystitis in high risk patients.

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