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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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October 2020
Dana Elhadad MD PhD, Yotam Bronstein MD, Moshe Yana, Harel Baris MD, Uriel Levinger MD, Maurice Shapiro MD, and Nechama Sharon MD

Background: There is limited clinical information on coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients in Israel.

Objectives: To describe the characteristics, outcomes, and potential associations of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Israel.

Methods: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study of 58 consecutive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Laniado Hospital, Israel, between 14 March 2020 and 14 May 2020. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data on admission were collected and analyzed, and the association to subsequent respiratory failure was assessed.

Results: Mean age of patients was 70.7 ± 16.9 years (53% males, 47% females.); 74% had at least one co-morbidity. Most patients were of Jewish Ashkenazi descent. During hospitalization 15 patients (mean age 78.18 ± 10.35 years); 80% male, 73% Sephardi descent developed respiratory failure rates of 60% occurring on average 10.6 days following intubation. Laboratory tests at admission displayed a significant increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK) and a decrease in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) in patients who eventually developed respiratory failure (163.97 mg/L, 340.87 IU/L, 0.886 K/μl vs. 50.01 mg/L and 123.56 IU/L, 1.28 K/μl, respectively). Multivariate logistic analysis revealed an integrated parameter of CRP, CK, and ALC highly correlated with respiratory failure. Receiver operating characteristic curve revealed the area under the curve of CRP, CK, and ALC and the integrated parameter to be 0.910, 0.784, and 0.754, respectively. CRP was the strongest predictor to correlate with respiratory failure.

Conclusions: CRP, CK, and ALC levels on admission could possibly be used to detect high-risk patients prone to develop respiratory failure.

September 2020
Naftali Justman MD, Gilad Shahak MD, Ola Gutzeit MD, Dikla Ben Zvi MD, Yuval Ginsberg MD, Ido Solt MD, Dana Vitner MD, Ron Beloosesky MD, Zeev Weiner MD and Yaniv Zipori MD

Background: The World Health Organization classified coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) as a pandemic and recommends strict restrictions regarding most aspects of daily activities.

Objectives: To evaluate whether the pandemic has changed the prenatal care and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women without COVID-19.

Methods: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to describe changes in outpatient clinic visits and to compare the rates of cesarean and instrumental deliveries between two periods of time: March–April 2020 (during the COVID-19 outbreak) with March–April of the preceding year, 2019.

Results: During the COVID-19 outbreak, visits to obstetric triage, gynecologic triage, high-risk clinic, and ultrasound units decreased by 36.4%, 34.7%, 32.8%, and 18.1%, respectively. The medical center experienced a 17.8% drop in the total number of births (610 births) compared with March and April 2019 (742 births). During the outbreak women were more likely to be nulliparous (33.3% vs. 27.6%, P = 0.02) and present with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (7.5% vs. 4%, P = 0.005) or gestational diabetes (13% vs. 10%, P = 0.03). More epidural analgesia was used (83.1% vs. 77.1%, P = 0.006). There were more operative vaginal deliveries during the outbreak (16.7% vs. 6.8%, P = 0.01). All other maternal and neonatal outcomes were comparable between the two periods.

Conclusions: The medical facility experienced a major decline in all aspects of the routine obstetrics activities during the time of the pandemic. The higher rate of operative vaginal deliveries among nulliparous may be associated with the pandemic effect on the rate of high-risk patients

Arieh Riskin MD PhD, Omer Itzchaki BSc, David Bader MD MHA, Adir Iofe MD, Arina Toropine MD and Shlomit Riskin-Mashiah MD MPH

Background: The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing in parallel to the worldwide obesity and type 2 diabetes pandemic. Both GDM and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) are associated with short- and long-term consequences in the offspring. There are few recent studies addressing outcomes of newborns born to women diagnosed with GDM and PGDM in Israel.

Objectives: To assess perinatal complications in offspring of women with GDM and PGDM.

Methods: The authors conducted a single-center retrospective case-control study of outcomes of all newborns whose mothers had been diagnosed with diabetes in pregnancy compared to randomly assigned controls born on the same date, whose mothers had no diabetes.

Results: In the study period 2015–2017, 526 mothers diagnosed with GDM or PGDM and their newborn infants were identified. The authors randomly assigned 526 control infants. The rate of women with diabetes in pregnancy was 5.0%. Mothers with GDM and PGDM had higher rates of pre-eclampsia, multiple pregnancies, and preterm deliveries. Mothers with PGDM had significantly higher rates of intrauterine fetal demise (4.3%), congenital anomalies (12.8%), and small-for-gestational-age neonates (10.6%) compared to controls (0%, 3.2%, and 4.2%, respectively, P < 0.001). The risks for preterm or cesarean delivery, large-for-gestational-age neonate, respiratory morbidity, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia were increased in offspring of mothers with diabetes, especially PGDM.

Conclusions: Despite all the advancements in prenatal care, diabetes in pregnancy, both PGDM and GDM, is still associated with significant morbidities and complications in offspring. Better preconception and inter-pregnancy care might reduce these risks

June 2020
Ilan Merdler MD MHA, Mustafa Gabarin MD, Itamar Loewenstein MD, Sivan Letourneau MD, David Zahler MD, Aviram Hochstadt MD, Yishay Szekely MD, Shmuel Banai MD and Yacov Shacham MD

Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for primary reperfusion in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has largely been superseded byf primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is estimated to be performed in ≤ 5% of STEMI cases.

Objectives: To compare early CABG (within 30 days following admission) and primary PCI outcomes following STEMI.

Methods: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of patients hospitalized with acute STEMI for early reperfusion therapy between January 2008 and June 2016. Short- and long-term outcomes were assessed for patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI vs. early CABG as reperfusion therapy.

Results: The study comprised 1660 STEMI patients, 38 of whom (2.3%) underwent CABG within 30 days of presentation. Unadjusted 30-day mortality was more than twice as high in the CABG group (7.5%) than in the PCI group (3.3%); however, it did not reach statistical significance. Similar results were demonstrated for mortality rates beyond 30 days (22% vs. 14%, P = 0.463). All patients undergoing CABG beyond 72 hours following admission survived past 2 years. Multivariate analysis found no differences between the two groups in long-term mortality risk. propensity score matched long-term mortality comparison (30 days–2 years) yielded a 22% mortality rate in the CABG groups compared with 14% in the PCI group (P < 0.293).

Conclusion: Early CABG was performed in only a minority of STEMI patients. This high-risk patient population demonstrated worse outcomes compared to patients undergoing PCI. Performing surgery beyond 72 hours following admission may be associated with lower risk.

May 2020
Ygal Plakht RN PhD, Harel Gilutz MD, Jonathan Eli Arbelle MD, Dan Greenberg PhD and Arthur Shiyovich MD

Background: Survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at increased risk for recurrent cardiac events and tend to use excessive healthcare services, thus resulting in increased costs.

Objectives: To evaluate the disparities in healthcare resource utilization and costs throughout a decade following a non-fatal AMI according to sex and ethnicity groups in Israel.

Methods: A retrospective study included AMI patients hospitalized at Soroka University Medical Center during 2002–2012. Data were obtained from electronic medical records. Post-AMI annual length of hospital stay (LOS); number of visits to the emergency department (ED), primary care facilities, and outpatient consulting clinics; and costs were evaluated and compared according sex and ethnicity groups.

Results: A total of 7685 patients (mean age 65.3 ± 13.6 years) were analyzed: 56.8% Jewish males (JM), 26.6% Jewish females (JF), 12.4% Bedouin males (BM), and 4.2% Bedouin females (BF). During the up-to 10-years follow-up (median 5.8 years), adjusted odds ratios [AdjOR] for utilizations of hospital-associated services were highest among BF (1.628 for LOS; 1.629 for ED visits), whereas AdjOR for utilization of community services was lowest in BF (0.722 for primary clinic, 0.782 for ambulatory, and 0.827 for consultant visits), compared with JM. The total cost of BF was highest among the study groups (AdjOR = 1.589, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Long-term use of hospital-associated healthcare services and total costs were higher among Bedouins (especially BF), whereas utilization of ambulatory services was lower in these groups. Culturally and economically sensitive programs optimizing healthcare resources utilization and costs is warranted.

March 2020
Rakefet Yoeli-Ullman MD, Nimrod Dori-Dayan MD, Shali Mazaki-Tovi MD, Roni Zemet MD, Neomi Kedar, Ohad Cohen MD and Tali Cukierman-Yaffe MD

Background: Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) carries a significantly elevated risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. There is evidence that certain interventions reduce the risk for adverse outcomes. Studies have shown that a multi-disciplinary approach improves pregnancy outcomes in women with PGDM.

Objectives: To determine pregnancy outcomes in women with PGDM using a multi-disciplinary approach.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive women with pregestational type 1 and type 2 diabetes who were monitored at a high-risk pregnancy clinic at the Sheba Medical Center. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. All data related to maternal glucose control and insulin pump function were prospectively recorded on Medtronic CareLink® pro software (Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA).

Results: This study comprised 121 neonates from 116 pregnancies of 94 women. In 83% of the pregnancies continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors were applied during a part or all of the pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes among women who were followed by a multi-disciplinary team before and during pregnancy, and during labor and puerperium resulted in better glucose control (hemoglobin A1c 6.4% vs. 7.8%), lower risk for pregnancy induced hypertension/preeclampsia (7.7% vs. 15.6%), lower birth weight (3212 g vs. 3684 g), and lower rate of large size for gestational age and macrosomia (23.1% vs. 54.2% and 3.3% vs. 28.4%, respectively), compared to data from European cohorts.

Conclusions: The multi-disciplinary approach for treating women with PGDM practiced in the high-risk pregnancy clinic at the Sheba Medical Center resulted in lower rates of macrosomia, LGA, and pregnancy induced hypertension compared to rates reported in the literature.

December 2019
Dror B Leviner MD, Guy Witberg MD, Amir Sharon MD, Yosif Boulos BsC, Alon Barsheshet MD, Erez Sharoni MD, Dan Spiegelstein MD, Hana Vaknin-Assa MD, Dan Aravot MD, Ran Kornowski MD and Abid Assali MD

Background: Current guidelines for choosing between revascularization modalities may not be appropriate for young patients.

Objectives: To compare outcomes and guide treatment options for patients < 40 years of age, who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) between 2008 and 2018.

Methods: Outcomes were compared for 183 consecutive patients aged < 40 years who underwent PCI or CABG between 2008 and 2018, Outcomes were compared as time to first event and as cumulative events for non-fatal outcomes.

Results: Mean patient age was 36.3 years and 96% were male. Risk factors were similar for both groups. Drug eluting stents were implemented in 71% of PCI patients and total arterial revascularization in 74% of CABG patients. During a median follow-up of 6.5 years, 16 patients (8.6%) died. First cardiovascular events occurred in 35 (38.8%) of the PCI group vs. 29 (31.1%) of the CABG group (log rank P = 0.022), repeat events occurred in 96 vs. 51 (P < 0.01), respectively. After multivariate adjustment, CABG was associated with a significantly reduced risk for first adverse event (hazard ratio [HR] 0.305, P < 0.01) caused by a reduction in repeat revascularization. CABG was also associated with a reduction in overall repeat events (HR 0.293, P < 0.01). There was no difference in overall mortality between CABG and PCI.

Conclusions: Young patients with coronary disease treated by CABG showed a reduction in the risk for non-fatal cardiac events. Mortality was similar with CABG and PCI.

September 2019
Atzmon Tsur MD, Nael Shakeer MD and Ronit Geron MD

Background: The potential for full rehabilitation following amputation among end-stage renal disease patients is poor.

Objectives: To evaluate the functional outcomes and survival among amputees treated with hemodialysis at the end of the rehabilitation procedure.

Methods: We recruited 46 patients after lower limb amputation. Of these individuals, 19 (41.3%) were treated with dialysis and 27 (58.7%) were non-dialysis-dependent patients (NDDP). Both groups were divided into three sub-groups according to their independence with regard to activities of daily living (ADL) and their ability to walk with prostheses.

Results: The survival of lower limb amputees treated with dialysis was shorter compared to NDDP. Survival after amputation among the NDDP who were fully or partially independent in ADL and with regard to mobility, was longer compared to the non-mobile amputees as with the patients treated with dialysis.

Conclusions: Survival was significantly longer in lower limb amputees NDDP and shorter in patients who did not achieve a certain level of functioning.

April 2019
Itai Gross MD, Ayalon Hadar BSc, Miklosh Bala MD and Saar Hashavya MD

Background: Horse riding has become increasingly popular in recent years and is a common activity among children. As a result, pediatric horse-related injuries are frequently encountered in emergency departments.

Objectives: To examine the characteristics of horse-related injuries in the pediatric population.

Methods: We collected and analyzed the data on all pediatric horse-related injuries presented to a tertiary hospital, level one trauma center, during the years 2006–2016.

Results: A total of 53 children with horse-related injuries were documented. Forty-two patients were male (79%) and their mean age was 11.13 ± 4.72 years. The most common mechanism of injury was falling off a horse (31 patients, 58%) and the most common type of injury was skeletal (32 patients, 60%). Head injuries occurred in 16 patients (30%) and facial injuries in 12 (23%). The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 10.5 ± 6.32, and 15 patients (28%) had severe trauma (ISS > 15). Twenty-nine patients (55%) required trauma team intervention, 12 (23%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 24 (45%) required surgery. The mean length of hospitalization was 4.3 ± 3.14 days.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that horse-related trauma may involve serious injuries and it exhibits typical injury patterns. Young boys are at highest risk. The potential severity of these injuries merits a thorough evaluation. We suggest that these injuries be triaged appropriately, preferably to a medical facility with proper trauma capabilities.

March 2019
Efrat Ben-Nun Yaari BSc, Rivka Kauli MD, Pearl Lilos MA and Zvi Laron MD PhD

Background: Treatment of patients with childhood growth hormone deficiency is usually terminated at the end of puberty. Follow-up into adult age is rare, even more so in patients with congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency (cIGHD).

Objectives: To assess the clinical and social characteristics of adults with cIGHD who received growth hormone (hGH) treatment in childhood.

Methods: Thirty-nine patients (23 men, 16 women) diagnosed in our clinic with cIGHD at 7 ± 4.2 years, and treated with hGH during childhood for 2–18 years, were followed into adulthood (mean age 30.7 ± 13.3 years). Ascertained detailed data were found for 32 patients.

Results: Mean ± SD height for males was 160.2 ± 10.6 cm and for females 146.4 ± 5.4 cm. All patients achieved full sexual development and 14 were married. After cessation of GH treatment and with advanced age all exhibited a progressive increase in adiposity to the degree of obesity. Twelve patients suffered from hyperlipidemia, 4 developed diabetes mellitus, and 5 have cardiovascular diseases. One patient died in an accident. None developed cancer. Of the 39 patients, 22 have an education level of high school or higher, and 2 are in special institutions. Most are employed in manual labor.

Conclusions: Patients with congenital IGHD who do not receive early and regular replacement treatment are prone to lag in achieving normal height and suffer from educational and vocational handicaps.

October 2018
Ahmad Hassan MD, Ronen Jaffe MD, Ronen Rubinshtein MD, Basheer Karkabi MD, David A. Halon MB ChB, Moshe Y. Flugelman MD and Barak Zafrir MD

Background: Contemporary data on clinical profiles and long-term outcomes of young adults with coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited.

Objectives: To determine the risk profile, presentation, and outcomes of young adults undergoing coronary angiography.

Methods: A retrospective analysis (2000–2017) of patients aged ≤ 35 years undergoing angiography for evaluation and/or treatment of CAD was conducted.

Results: Coronary angiography was performed in 108 patients (88% males): 67 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 41 non-ACS chest pain syndromes. Risk factors were similar: dyslipidemia (69%), positive family history (64%), smoking (61%), obesity (39%), hypertension (32%), and diabetes (22%). Eight of the ACS patients (12%) and 29 of the non-ACS (71%) had normal coronary arteries without subsequent cardiac events. Of the 71 with angiographic evidence of CAD, long-term outcomes (114 ± 60 months) were similar in ACS compared to non-ACS presentations: revascularization 41% vs. 58%, myocardial infarction 32% vs. 33%, and all-cause death 8.5% vs. 8.3%. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) was diagnosed in 25% of those with CAD, with higher rates of myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.62, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.15–5.99) and revascularization (HR 4.30, 95%CI 2.01–9.18) during follow-up. Only 17% of patients with CAD attained a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treatment goal < 70 mg/dl.

Conclusions: CAD in young adults is associated with marked burden of traditional risk factors and high rates of future adverse cardiac events, regardless of acuity of presentation, especially in patients with FH, emphasizing the importance of detecting cardiovascular risk factors and addressing atherosclerosis at young age.

September 2018
Yael Peled MD, Dov Freimark MD, Yedael Har-Zahav MD, Eyal Nachum MD, Alexander Kogan MD, Yigal Kassif MD and Jacob Lavee MD

Background: Heart transplantation (HT) is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage heart failure. The HT unit at the Sheba Medical Center is the largest of its kind in Israel.

Objectives: To evaluate the experience of HT at a single center, assess trends over 3 decades, and correlate with worldwide data.

Methods: Between 1990 and 2017, we reviewed all 285  adult HT patients. Patients were grouped by year of HT: 1990–1999 (decade 1), 2000–2009 (decade 2), and 2010–2017 (decade 3).

Results: The percentage of women undergoing HT has increased and etiology has shifted from ischemic to non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (10% vs. 25%, P = 0.033; 70% vs. 40% ischemic, for decades 1 vs. 3, respectively). Implantation of left ventricular assist device as a bridge to HT has increased. Metabolic profile has improved over the years with lower low-density lipoprotein, diabetes, and hypertension after HT (101 mg/dl, 27%, and 41% at decade 3, respectively). There has been a prominent change in immunosuppressive treatments, currently more than 90% are treated with tacrolimus, compared with 2.7% and 30.9% in decades 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.001). Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) rates have declined significantly (47% vs. 17.5% for decades 1 and 2, P < 0.001) as have the combined endpoint of CAV/death. Similarly, the current incidence of acute rejections is significantly lower.

Conclusions: Our analysis of over 25 years of a single-center experience with HT shows encouraging improved results, which are in line with worldwide standards and experience.

Moshe Bronshtein MD, Ayala Gover MD, Ron Beloosesky MD, Hanin Dabaja MD, Yuval Ginsberg MD, Zeev Weiner MD and Nizar Khatib MD

Background: Ptyalism gravidarum (PG) is a condition of hypersalivation that affects pregnant women early in gestation. Symptoms include massive saliva volumes (up to 2 liters per day), swollen salivary glands, sleep deprivation, significant emotional distress, and social difficulties.

Objectives: To examine maternal and fetal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of patients with PG.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with PG in our clinic during the years 2001–2016 were identified and contacted. Demographic data were extracted from patient charts and clinical and outcome data was collected via telephone interviews.

Results: The incidence of PG was 1/963 (0.09%) in our sample. Eleven out of 22 women (40%) with PG were also diagnosed with hyperemesis gravidarum. Fetal gender did not increase the risk. Of the mothers presenting with PG, 37% had a positive family history for this condition. There was no associated increase in the rate of fetal or maternal complications. Two women reported a resolution of the symptoms immediately following hypnosis with acupuncture treatment.

Conclusions: Although PG represents an unpleasant mental and physical condition, it does not pose any specific risk to the health of the mother or increase adverse perinatal outcomes for the fetus. Alternative medicine could play a role in the treatment of PG.

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