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עמוד בית
Fri, 12.07.24

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June 2024
Elias Nasrallah MD, Hussein Zaitoon MD, Marina Zeltser MD, Ran Steinberg MD, Ran Miron MD, Hanna Farah MD, Ranaa Damouni-Shalabi MD, Imad Kassis MD, Halima Dabaja-Younis MD MPH

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSA) is an infectious pathogen associated with acute appendicitis; however, it is not consistently addressed by empirical antibiotic therapy, despite potential complications.

Objectives: To investigate the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of PSA-associated acute appendicitis in children.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis involving pediatric patients who underwent acute appendicitis surgery and had positive peritoneal cultures. Clinical, microbiological, and intraoperative data were extracted from medical records.

Results: Among 2523 children with acute appendicitis, 798 (31.6%) underwent peritoneal cultures, revealing 338 positive cases (42.3%), with PSA detected in 77 cases (22.8%). Children with PSA were three times more likely to exhibit high intraoperative grading ≥ 3 (93.4% vs. 76.8%, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.2–8.3, P = 0.023) and nearly four times more likely to have polymicrobial cultures (88.3% vs. 62.1%, 95%CI 1.8–8.0, P < 0.001) than those without PSA in peritoneal cultures. Duration of symptoms did not predict PSA isolation (P = 0.827). Patients with PSA had longer median hospital stays (8 days, interquartile range [IQR] 7–10) than those with other pathogens (7 days, IQR 5–9) (P = 0.004). Antibiotic treatment duration, intensive care unit admission rates, readmission, and mortality were similar between the two groups (P = 0.893, 0.197, 0.760, and 0.761, respectively).

Conclusions: PSA is a common pathogen in children diagnosed with acute appendicitis and positive peritoneal cultures. The likelihood of isolating PSA increases with high-grade intraoperative assessment and in the presence of multiple pathogens in peritoneal cultures, suggests antipseudomonal treatment.

Milana Gelman MD, Tzipora Galperin MD, Esther Maor-Sagie MD, Yochai Yoeli MD, Mordechai Hallak MD, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv MD, Amir Naeh MD

Background: The prevalence of pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) in women of reproductive age has surged globally, contributing to increased rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a crucial marker for diagnosing and monitoring PGDM, with periconceptional levels influencing the risk of congenital anomalies and complications.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between periconceptional HbA1c levels and perinatal complications in pregnant women with poorly controlled PGDM.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of pregnancies between 2010 and 2019, HbA1c > 6% at 3 months prior to conception or during the first trimester. Outcomes of periconceptional HbA1c levels were compared.

Results: The cohort included 89 women: 49 with HbA1c 6–8%, 29 with HbA1c 8–10%, and 11 with HbA1c > 10%. Higher HbA1c levels were more prevalent in type 1 diabetics and were associated with increased end-organ damage risk. Women with elevated HbA1c levels tended toward unbalanced glucose levels during pregnancy. The cohort exhibited high rates of preterm delivery, hypertensive disorders, cesarean delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Overall live birth rate was 83%. While a significant correlation was found between HbA1c levels and preterm delivery, no consistent association was observed with other adverse outcomes.

Conclusions: Periconceptional glycemic control in PGDM pregnancies is important. Elevated HbA1c levels are associated with increased risks of adverse outcomes. Beyond a certain HbA1c level, risks of complications may not proportionally escalate.

May 2024
Rabea Haddad MD, Edo Birati MD, Hiba Zayyad MD, Nizar Andria MD, Eyal Nachum MD, Erez Kachel MD, Ibrahim Marai MD

Background: Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are increasingly being used; thus, there is an increasing need for transvenous lead extraction (TLE).

Objectives: To summarize our experience with TLE at single referral center in northern Israel.

Methods: The study included all patients who underwent TLE at our center between 2019 and 2022, regardless of the indication.

Results: The cohort included 50 patients. The mean age was 69 ± 10.36 years; 78% were males. A total of 99 electrodes were targeted. The mean number of electrodes was 1.96 (range 1–4) per patient. The time between lead implantation and extraction ranged between 1.1 and 34 years with an average of 8.14 ± 5.71 years (median of 7.5 years). Complete lead removal was achieved in 98% of patients and in 98.99% of leads. The complete procedural success rate as well as the clinical procedural success rate was 96%. The procedural failure rate was 4% (1 patient died 2 days after the index procedure and 1 patient remained with large portion of lead). The indication for TLE was infection in 78% of the cohort group. Powered mechanical sheaths were used in 36 patients (72%), laser sheaths in 27 (54%), and a combination of laser and mechanical sheaths in 16 (32%).

Conclusions: The clinical and procedural success rates of TLE, primarily for CEID-related infection, were high. A combination of laser and mechanical sheaths was needed in one-third of patients.

March 2024
Amir Aker MD, Ina Volis MD, Walid Saliba MD MPH, Ibrahim Naoum MD, Barak Zafrir MD

Background: Ischemic stroke is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in future vascular events.

Objectives: To investigate whether CHA2DS2-VASc scores aid in risk stratification of middle-aged patients without atrial fibrillation (AF) experiencing ischemic stroke.

Methods: We analyzed data of 2628 patients, aged 40–65 years with no known AF who presented with acute ischemic stroke between January 2020 and February 2022. We explored the association between CHA2DS2-VASc scores categorized by subgroups (score 2–3, 4–5, or 6–7) with major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) including recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or all-cause death during a median follow-up of 19.9 months.

Results: Mean age was 57 years (30% women); half were defined as low socioeconomic status. Co-morbidities included hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and smoking in 40–60% of the patients. The incidence rate of MACCE per 100 person-years was 6.7, 12.2, and 21.2 in those with score 2–3, 4–5, and 6–7, respectively. In a multivariate cox regression model, compared to patients with score 2–3 (reference group), those with score 4–5 and 6–7 had an adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval [95%CI]) for MACCE of 1.74 (95%CI 1.41–2.14) and 2.87 (95%CI 2.10–3.93), respectively. The discriminative capacity of CHA2DS2-VASc score for overall MACCE was modest (area under curve 0.63; 95%CI 0.60–0.66), although better for myocardial infarction 0.69 (95% CI 0.61–0.77).

Conclusions: CHA2DS2-VASc score may predict future MACCE in middle-aged patients with ischemic stroke and no history of AF.

Lea Ohana Sarna Cahan MD, Dina Qaraen Saloni MD, Mevaseret Avital MD, Naama Pines MD, Itai Gross MD, Giora Wieser MD, Saar Hashavya MD

Background: Hypothermia, as a sign of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children and infants older than 90 days is poorly characterized, especially in the post-pneumococcal vaccine era.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of SBI in children and infants presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED) with reported or documented hypothermia.

Methods: Retrospective data analysis was conducted of all well-appearing children aged 0–16 years who presented with a diagnosis of hypothermia at two tertiary PEDs from 2010 to 2019.

Results: The study comprised 99 children, 15 (15.2%) age 0–3 months, 71 (71.7%) 3–36 months, and 13 (13.1%) > 36 months. The youngest age group had increased length of stay in the hospital (P < 0.001) and increased rates of pediatric intensive care unit admissions (P < 0.001). Empirical antibiotic coverage was initiated in 80% of the children in the 0–3 months group, 21.1% in the 3–36 months group, and 15.4% in > 36 months (P < 0.001). Only one case of SBI was recorded and no bacteremia or meningitis. Hypothermia of unknown origin was the most common diagnosis in all age groups (34%, 42%, 46%), respectively, followed by bronchiolitis (26%) and hypoglycemia (13.3%) for 0–3 month-old children, unspecified viral infection (20%) and otitis media (7%) for 3–36-month old, and unspecified viral infection (23%) and alcohol intoxication (15.2%) in > 36 months.

Conclusion: There is a low incidence of SBI in well-appearing children presenting to the PED with hypothermia and a benign course and outcome in those older than 3 months.

January 2024
Ravit Peretz-Machluf MD, Mayan Gilboa MD, Shiran Bookstein-Peretz MD, Omri Segal MD, Noam Regev MD, Raanan Meyer MD, Gili Regev-Yochay MD, Yoav Yinon MD, Shlomi Toussia-Cohen MD

Background: Pregnant women are at higher risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since the release of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech), there has been accumulated data about the three vaccine doses. However, information regarding obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women vaccinated with the third (booster) vaccine is limited and primarily retrospective.

Objectives: To evaluate the obstetric and early neonatal outcomes of pregnant women vaccinated during pregnancy with the COVID-19 booster vaccine compared to pregnant women vaccinated only by the first two doses.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of pregnant women who received the BNT162b2 vaccine during pregnancy. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared between pregnant women who received only the first two doses of the vaccine to those who also received the booster dose.

Results: Overall, 139 pregnant women were vaccinated during pregnancy with the first two doses of the vaccine and 84 with the third dose. The third dose group received the vaccine earlier during their pregnancy compared to the two doses group (212 vs. 315 weeks, respectively, P < 0.001). No differences in obstetric and early neonatal outcomes between the groups were found except for lower rates of urgent cesarean delivery in the third dose group (adjusted odds ratio 0.21; 95% confidence interval 0.048–0.926, P = 0.039).

Conclusions: Compared to the first two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine given in pregnancy, the booster vaccination is safe and not associated with an increased rate of adverse obstetric and early neonatal outcomes.

December 2023
Ron Ben Elyahu MD, Basel Khateeb MD, Eyal Yaacobi MD, Ezequiel Palmanovich MD, Omer Marom MD, David Segal MD, Michael Markushevich MD, Nissim Ohana MD, Yaron S. Brin MD

Background: Hip fractures are a public health problem that disproportionately affects the elderly. Displaced femoral neck fractures were treated historically with hemiarthroplasty, but the use of total hip arthroplasty (THA) is increasing showing superior long-term results.

Objectives: To assess whether THA has superior short-term results compared to bipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures.

Methods: Two groups of active older patients underwent either cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty or THA for displaced femoral neck fracture. All patients were operated on using the direct lateral approach to the hip joint. Patients were assessed using the Harris Hip Score at hospital discharge and at 6 weeks follow-up.

Results: We included 40 patients ages 65–85 years; 18 underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty and 22 THA. The number of women in each group was similar, as was mean age: 73.1 ± 4.2 years in the hemiarthroplasty group and 71.0 ± 3.7 in THA. Harris Hip Score on hospital discharge was similar in both groups. Walking ability at discharge was better in the THA cohort and they were discharged sooner: 5.2 ± 1.3 vs. 6.4 ± 1.7 days following hemiarthroplasty (P = 0.021). At 6 weeks follow-up, the mean Harris Hip Score was higher in the THA group (78.6 ± 11 vs. 61.5 ± 17 for hemiarthroplasty, P < 0.001). Patients in the THA group walked longer distances, needed less support while walking, and reported less pain.

Conclusions: Better short-term results at hospital discharge and at 6 weeks follow-up after THA contributed to earlier patient independence and shorter hospital stays.

October 2023
Susana Mikhail Mustafa MD, Raneen Abu Shqara MD, Maya Frank Wolf MD, Oleg Shnaider MD, Sari Nahir Biderman RN MA, Limor Sharabi MA, Lior Lowenstein MD

Background: The French AmbUlatory Cesarean Section (FAUCS) technique was introduced to the Galilee Medical Center in September 2021. FAUCS was performed electively for interested women who meet the criteria.

Objectives: To evaluate the learning curve of senior surgeons performing FAUCS, the procedure short-term outcomes, and complications.

Methods: This retrospective study included 50 consecutive women who underwent FAUCS from September 2021 until March 2022 at our facility. Preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, and demographic data were retrieved from patient electronic charts.

Results: The mean duration of surgery was 53.26 ± 11.62 minutes. This time decreased as the surgical team's experience increased: from a mean 58.26 ± 12.25 minutes for the first 15 procedures to a mean 51.17 ± 9.73 minutes for subsequent procedures. The mean visual analogue scale score for 24 hours was 1.08 ± 0.84 (on a 10-point scale). The rate of neonatal cord pH < 7.2 was 6%, and there were 11.3% cases of vacuum assisted fetal extraction. In total, 44% of the women were able to mobilize and urinate spontaneously by 4–6 hours. Complications included bladder injury (n=1), endometritis (n=1), and incisional hematoma (n=1). Overall, the maternal satisfaction rate was high; 94% of the women would recommend FAUCS to others.

Conclusions: FAUCS is a feasible procedure with a high satisfaction rate. Following the first 15 procedures performed by one surgical team, the operative time decreased considerably. Further randomized controlled studies are needed to compare this procedure to regular cesarean section and evaluate neonatal outcomes.

Keren Zloto MD, Eyal Krispin MD, Anat Shmueli MD, Eran Hadar MD, Lina Salman MD MSc

Background: The administration of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) is standard practice for management of threatened preterm birth. Its benefit, especially in small for gestational age (SGA) late preterm, is unclear.

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of ACS on perinatal outcome of late preterm SGA neonates.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all women carrying a singleton gestation who had late preterm delivery (34–36 gestational weeks) of SGA neonates at a single tertiary university-affiliated medical center (July 2012–December 2017). Exclusion criteria included termination of pregnancy, intrauterine fetal death, and birth weight ≥ 10th percentile. Outcomes were compared between ACS and non-ACS treatment prior to delivery. Neonatal composite outcome included neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation, and transient tachypnea.

Results: Overall, 228 women met inclusion criteria; 102 (44.7%) received ACS and 126 did not (55.3%). Median birth weight among the non-ACS group was significantly higher (1896.0 vs. 1755.5 grams P < 0.001). Rates of NICU and jaundice requiring phototherapy were higher among the ACS group (53.92% vs. 31.74%, P = 0.01; 12.74% vs. 5.55%, P = 0.05, respectively). Composite neonatal outcome was significantly higher among the ACS group (53.92% vs. 32.53%, odds ratio [OR] 2.42, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.41–4.15, P = 0.01). After adjustment for potential confounders, this association remained significant (OR 2.15, 95%CI 1.23–3.78, P = 0.007).

Conclusions: ACS given during pregnancy did not improve respiratory outcome for SGA late preterm neonates. ACS may be associated with a worse outcome.

September 2023
Alaa Atamna MD, Evgeny Berkov MD, Genady Drozdinsky MD, Tzippy Shochat MD, Haim Ben Zvi MD, Noa Eliakim-Raz MD, Jihad Bishara MD, Avishay Elis MD

Background: Influenza and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are respiratory diseases with similar modes of transmission. In December 2021, influenza re-emerged after it had been undetected since March 2020 and the Omicron variant replaced the Delta variant. Data directly comparing the two diseases are scarce.

Objectives: To compare the outcomes of patients with both the Omicron variant and influenza during 2021–2022.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study conducted in Beilinson hospital, Israel, from December 2021 to January 2022. We included all hospitalized patients with either laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 or influenza. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality.

Results: We identified 167 patients diagnosed with Omicron and 221 diagnosed with Influenza A. The median age was 71 years for Omicron and 65 years for influenza. Patients with Omicron had a significantly higher Charlson Comorbidity Index score (4 vs. 3, P < 0.001). Patients with Omicron developed more respiratory failure that needed mechanical ventilation (7% vs. 2%, P = 0.05) and vasopressors (14% vs. 2%, P < 0.001) than patients with influenza. In a multivariate model, 30-day mortality was lower in patients diagnosed with influenza than in patients diagnosed with Omicron (19/221 [9%] vs. 44/167 [26%], hazard ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.25–0.81).

Conclusions: Patients diagnosed with Omicron had higher mortality than patients diagnosed with seasonal influenza. This finding could be due to differences in co-morbidities, the virus pathogenicity, and host responses to infection.

Amir Hadayer MD, Yehonatan Weinberger MD, Tal Corina Sela MD, Orly Gal-Or MD, Dov Weinberger MD, Rita Ehrlich MD

Background: During combined phacovitrectomy, it is common practice to suture the main corneal incision to prevent intraoperative and postoperative wound leak. However, it may be possible to avoid suturing using a self-sealing corneal incision technique as in standard cataract surgery.

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical outcome, safety, and complications of combined phacovitrectomy without preventive suturing.

Methods: This retrospective case series study included consecutive patients who underwent combined phacovitrectomy between January 2018 and June 2019 for mixed indications. Surgeries were performed at a tertiary university hospital. All surgeries were performed by the same two retinal surgeons. Cataract surgery was performed first, followed by insertion of trocars and vitrectomy. Corneal sutures were not planned but were used at the discretion of the surgeon.

Results: The cohort included 106 eyes of 102 patients. Suturing of the main corneal incision was deemed necessary in five cases (5%) because of a main incision leak or anterior chamber shallowing during trocar insertion. No other complications related to the absence of prophylactic corneal sutures were encountered during surgery or follow-up.

Conclusions: Preventive corneal suturing may not be necessary in combined phacovitrectomy surgery and can be used in the few cases in which it is indicated during surgery.

Tamar Beck MD, Eyal Aviran MD, Shelly Cohn MD, David Goitein MD

Background: Long-term outcome data for bariatric surgery in patients with severe obesity (SO) (body mass index [BMI] ³ 50 kg/m2) are scarce.

Objectives: To compare perioperative morbidity and long-term outcomes between patients with SO and non-SO (NSO).

Methods: Patients with SO who underwent primary bariatric surgery with a follow-up ³ 5 years were age- and gender-matched with NSO patients in a retrospective, case-control study. Data included demographics, BMI, co-morbidities, early outcomes, current and nadir weight, co-morbidity status, and general satisfaction.

Results: Of 178 patients, 49.4% were male, mean age 44.5 ± 14 years. Mean preoperative BMI was 54.7 ± 3.6 and 41.8 ± 3.8 kg/m2 in SO and NSO, respectively (P = 0.02). Groups were similar in preoperative characteristics. Depression/anxiety was more prevalent in NSO (12.4% vs. 3.4%, P = 0.03). Obstructive sleep apnea was higher in SO (21.3% vs. 10.1%, P = 0.04). Sleeve gastrectomy was performed most often (80.9%), with a tendency toward bypass in SO (P = 0.05). Early complication rates were: 13.5% in SO and 12.4% in NSO (P = 0.82). Mean follow-up was 80.4 ± 13.3 months. BMI reduction was higher in SO (31.8 ± 5.9 vs. 26.8 ± 4.2 kg/m2, P < 0.001) and time to nadir weight was longer (22.1 ± 21.3 vs. 13.0 ± 12.0 months, P = 0.001). Co-morbidity improvement and satisfaction were similar.

Conclusions: Patients with SO benefited from bariatric surgery with reduced BMI and fewer co-morbidities. No added risk of operative complications was found compared to patients with NSO.

June 2023
Tal Bechor Ariel MD, Ben Ariel MD, Yuni Lahav MD, Moshe Yana BSc, Michael Ben-Acon MD, Nechama Sharon MD

Background: Infants younger than 6 months of age are not eligible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations. Maternal variables during pregnancy and the postnatal period may affect the clinical and laboratory course of COVID-19 positive infants.

Objective: To assess the clinical manifestation and laboratory differences in infants with three maternal variables: breastfeeding, vaccinated, and co-illness.

Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of positive COVID-19 infants with three subgroups of maternal variables. The population included infants under 6 months of age hospitalized due to COVID-19. Data about clinical features, laboratory tests, and maternal information including vaccination status, breastfeeding status and maternal positive COVID-19 infection was gathered. All variables were compared among the three subgroups.

Results: Breastfed infants had shorter hospitalization period (mean 2.61 ± 1.378 days) compared to non-breastfed infants (mean 3.8 ± 1.549) (P = 0.051). COVID-19 infants of positive COVID-19 mothers had a higher absolute neutrophil count (mean 4.4 ± 3.8) compared to infants of COVID-19 negative mothers (mean 2.7 ± 2.4) (P = 0.042).

Conclusion: Breastfeeding was associated with shorter periods of hospitalization in COVID-19 positive infants. In addition, positive COVID-19 infants of mothers who were positive for COVID-19 are likely to have a higher absolute neutrophils count.

Jonathan D. Cohen MBBCh FCP (SA), Tomer Kaplan BEMS MPH, Tammy Fink RN, Kyrill Grozovsky RN, Refael Strugo MD, Ilya Kagan MD, Tamar Ashkenazi RN PhD

Background: A limited program for kidney donation from uncontrolled donation after cardiocirculatory determination of death (uDCDD) was implemented at four hospitals in Israel in close cooperation with Magen David Adom (MDA), the national emergency medical service.

Objectives: To assess the outcome of transplantations performed between January 2017 and June 2022.

Methods: Donor data included age, sex, and cause of death. Recipient data included age, sex, and yearly serum creatinine levels. A retrospective study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases treated by MDA during 2021 were analyzed to assess their compatibility as potential uDCDD donors.

Results: In total, 49 potential donors were referred to hospitals by MDA. Consent was obtained in 40 cases (83%), organ retrieval was performed in 28 cases, and 40 kidneys were transplanted from 21 donors (75% retrieval rate). At 1-year follow-up, 36 recipients had a functioning graft (4 returned to dialysis) and mean serum creatinine 1.59 ± 0.92 mg% (90% graft survival). Outcome after transplantation showed serum creatinine levels (mg%) at 2 years 1.41 ± 0.83, n=26; 3 years 1.48 ± 0.99, n=16; 4 years 1.07 ± 1.06, n=7; and 5 years 1.12 ± 0.31, n=5. One patient died of multiple myeloma at 3 years. The MDA audit revealed an unutilized pool of 125 potential cases, 90 of whom were transported to hospitals and 35 were declared dead at the scene.

Conclusions: Transplant outcomes were encouraging, suggesting that more intensive implementation of the program may increase the number of kidneys transplanted, thus shortening recipient waiting lists.

May 2023
Shaul Pery MD, Fadi Abu Baker MD, Yael Kopelman MD

Background: Esophageal cancer is comprised of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma and is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Upper endoscopy may reveal a partially or completely lumen-occluding mass at diagnosis, yet the prognostic significance of such a presentation is not clear.

Objectives: To investigate whether endoscopic obstructing lesions have a meaning regarding patient prognosis.

Methods: We reviewed upper gastrointestinal endoscopic studies performed over a 20-year period (2000–2020). We compared overall survival, disease stage, histologic criteria, and anatomic location of the lesions in esophagus lumen-obstructing and non-obstructing tumors. Differences between the two groups were statistically evaluated.

Results: Sixty-nine patients were diagnosed with histologically confirmed esophageal cancer. As assessed through endoscopy, 32/69 (46%) patients had obstructive and 37/69 (54%) had non-obstructive cancers. Median survival was significantly shorter in the lumen-obstructing lesions compared with the non-obstructing lesions (3.5 months vs. 10 months, P = 0.001). Female median survival displayed a trend toward shorter survival compared to males (3.5 months vs. 10 months, P = 0.059). There was no statistically significant difference in the percentages of advanced, stage IV disease in the obstructive group and the non-obstructive group (11/32 [34.3%] and 14/37 [37.8%], respectively P = 0.80).

Conclusions: Obstructive esophageal cancers predict shorter median overall survival compared with non-obstructive cancers, without any correlation between obstruction of the lesion and tumor metastatic stage.

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