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עמוד בית
Sun, 23.06.24

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May 2023
Shani Sultani MD, Nerel Cohen MD, Matan Fischer MD

Sulfonylureas have been used to treat patients with diabetes for the last 80 years. The main side effect of this drug class is hypoglycemia, which might be severe and protracted. With the emergence of new medications with improved safety and better efficacy in preventing diabetes complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, the use of these agents is waning.

Sulfonylureas are historically classified into two generations. The generation first includes drugs such as tolbutamide and chlorpropamide, which are no longer used. The second generation includes glibenclamide and glimepiride, which have different pharmacokinetic properties and active metabolites.

In this case report, we present a patient with diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who developed prolonged hypoglycemia following the unauthorized use of a food supplement containing the first-generation sulfonylurea - tolbutamide.

September 2008
November 2005
A. Yellin, S.T. Zwas, J. Rozenman, D.A. Simansky and E. Goshen
Background: Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy has been used widely for the evaluation of neuroendocrine tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. Its use for detecting and staging thoracic carcinoids is only sporadically reported.
Objectives: To evaluate the possible roles of SRS[1] in the management of proven or suspected pulmonary carcinoids. 

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all patients undergoing SRS for known or suspected pulmonary carcinoids in a tertiary referral center during a 10 year period. During this period 89 patients underwent resection of pulmonary carcinoids and SRS was used for detection, staging or localization purposes in 8 of them (9%). Scans were labeled true positive, true negative, false positive, or false negative in comparison with histologic or follow-up results. 

Results: SRS was true positive in 6/6 lung locations; true positive in 2/8, true negative in 4/8 and false positive in 2/8 lymph node locations; and true positive in 1/8, true negative in 6/8 and false negative in 1/8 distant locations. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy were 90%, 83%, 83%, 91% and 87% respectively. The scans were strongly positive in the tumors and involved lymph nodes. SRS correctly localized an occult secreting pulmonary carcinoid. Granulomatous and reactive lymph nodes showed increased uptake. SRS was accurate in ruling out distant metastases. 

Conclusions: SRS is effective for visualizing and localizing pulmonary carcinoids. It assists in the staging of these tumors by detecting lymph node involvement and confirming or ruling out distant metastases. Inflamatory areas in the lung or lymph nodes may be falsely positive.


[1] SRS = somatostatin receptor scintigraphy

 
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