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עמוד בית
Mon, 26.02.24

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November 2019
Omar Hakrush MD, Yochai Adir MD, Sonia Schneer MD, and Amir Abramovic MD

Background: Transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration using a bronchoscope (EUS-B-FNA) allows clinicians to determine mediastinal staging and lung mass evaluation of lesions not accessible by endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or where endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration might not be safe.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety, diagnostic accuracy, and feasibility of EUS-B-FNA.

Methods: The study comprised patients who underwent a pulmonologist-performed EUS-B-FNA of mediastinal lymph nodes and parenchymal lung lesions between June 2015 and September 2017 at the Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

Results: EUS-B-FNA was performed in 81 patients. The transesophageal procedure was performed for easier accessibility (49.4%) and in high-risk patients (43.3%). The most frequently sampled mediastinal stations were left paratracheal and sub-carinal lymph nodes or masses (38.3% and 56.7%, respectively). There were no complications (e.g., acute respiratory distress, esophageal perforation, or bleeding). An accurate diagnosis was determined in 91.3% of cases.

Conclusions: Pulmonologist-performed EUS-B-FNA is safe and accurate for evaluating mediastinal and parenchymal lung lesions and lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic accuracy is high. EUS-B-FNA may allow access to sites not amenable to other forms of bronchoscopic sampling, or may increase diagnostic accuracy in patients where anatomic position predicts a low diagnostic yield.

June 2019
Margarita Makarov, Nir Peled MD PhD FCCP, Tzippy Shochat MD, Alona Zer MD, Ofer Rotem MD and Elizabeth Dudnik MD

Background: The main acquired resistance mechanism to first- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the propagation of T790M clones, which can be detected in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA).

Objectives: To analyze osimertinib outcomes according to T790M testing method.

Methods: The study comprised 33 consecutive patients with advanced EGFR mutant NSCLC who were diagnosed with a T790M mutation after progression on first- or second-generation EGFR TKIs and treated with osimertinib. The patients were divided into groups A (diagnosed by tumor testing) and B (by ctDNA testing). Osimertinib outcomes were compared between the groups.

Results: Objective response rate with osimertinib comprised 54% and 62% in groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.58). Median progression-free survival (PFS) with osimertinib was 8.9 months (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.8–17.5) and 9.1 months (95%Cl 5.3–12.6) in groups A and B, respectively (log-rank test 0.12, P = 0.73). Median overall survival (OS) was 13.8 months (95%CI 4.9–25.5) and 13.8 months (95%Cl 7.7–27.7) in groups A and B, respectively (log-rank test 0.09, P = 0.75). T790M testing technique did not affect PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95%CI 0.50–2.69, P = 0.73) or OS (HR = 1.16, 95%CI 0.45–3.01, P = 0.76). The proportion of patients diagnosed by ctDNA grew from 56% in 2015 to 67% in 2016–2017.

Conclusions: Our study provides a ctDNA validation for the purpose of T790M testing in EGFR mutant NSCLC.

October 2017
Sarit Appel MD, Jeffry Goldstein MD, Marina Perelman MD, Tatiana Rabin MD, Damien Urban MBBS MD, Amir Onn MD, Tiberiu R. Shulimzon MD, Ilana Weiss MA, Sivan Lieberman MD, Edith M. Marom MD, Nir Golan MD, David Simansky MD, Alon Ben-Nun MD PhD, Yaacov Richard Lawrence MBBS MRCP, Jair Bar MD PhD and Zvi Symon MD PhD

Background: Neoadjuvant chemo-radiation therapy (CRT) dosages in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were traditionally limited to 45 Gray (Gy).

Objectives: To retrospectively analyze outcomes of patients treated with 60 Gy CRT followed by surgery.

Methods: A retrospective chart review identified patients selected for CRT to 60 Gy followed by surgery between August 2012 and April 2016. Selection for surgery was based on the extent of disease, cardiopulmonary function, and response to treatment. Pathological response after neoadjuvant CRT was scored using the modified tumor regression grading. Local control (LC), disease free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method.

Results: Our cohort included 52 patients: 75% (39/52) were stage IIIA. A radiation dose of 60 Gy (range 50–62Gy) was delivered in 82.7%. Surgeries performed included: lobectomy, chest-wall resection, and pneumonectomy in 67.3%, 13.4%, and 19.2%, respectively. At median follow-up of 22.4 months, the 3 year OS was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI] 52–87%), LC was 84% (95%CI 65–93), and DFS 35% (95%CI 14–59). Grade 4–5 postoperative complications were observed in 17.3% of cases and included chest wall necrosis (5.7%), bronco-pleural fistula (7.7%), and death (3.8%). A major pathologic regression with < 10% residual tumor occurred in 68.7% of patients (36/52) and showed a trend to improved OS (P = 0.1). Pneumonectomy cases had statistically worse OS (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Major pathologic regression was observed 68.7% with 60 Gy neoadjuvant CRT with a trend to improved survival. Pneumonectomy correlated with worse survival.

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