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עמוד בית
Mon, 17.06.24

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February 2022
May 2018
Marwan Hakim MD DSc, Adel Jabour PhD, Miriam Anton MSc, Meggie Hakim PhD and Sahar Kheirallah MD

Background: The recommendation of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regarding universal screening for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) at 35–37 weeks gestational age in pregnancy is not accepted in Israel. The National Council for Obstetrics, Neonatology and Genetics recommends intrapartum prophylaxis, mainly based on risk factors, to prevent early neonatal GBS infection. This policy is based on past studies demonstrating low colonization rates of the bacteria in Israeli pregnant women and very low neonatal sepsis rates.

Objectives: To determine the applicability of the high-risk group prophylaxis policy for Arab Israeli pregnant women.

Methods: Vaginorectal swabs from Arab Israeli pregnant women who attended the labor ward between October 2015 and February 2016, were obtained before any pelvic examination for GBS identification using Quidel’s AmpliVue® GBS assay. Women who tested positive received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent neonatal infection. Obstetric data were collected from each woman from a standardized questionnaire. Data regarding the delivery and neonates were collected as well.

Results: The study comprised 188 Arab pregnant women who met the inclusion criteria and signed a consent form to participate in the study. Of these, 59 had positive tests, and a carriage rate of 31%. No neonatal colonization of GBS was found.

Conclusions: The carrier rate in Arab pregnant women in northern Israel is higher than the national average, at least partially due to the more sensitive method of GBS detection used in the present study.

March 2009
A. Maayan-Metzger, A. Barzilai, N. Keller and J. Kuint

Background: Early-onset neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among newborn infants.

Objectives: To determine the incidence, type of pathogens and resistance to antibiotics among newborns with early-onset neonatal sepsis, and to identify the risk factors predisposing infants to resistant pathogens in order to reevaluate antibiotic regimens appropriate for resistant bacteria in these high risk neonates.

Methods: We retrospectively studied maternal and neonatal variables of 73 term and near-term infants and 30 preterm infants, born over a period of 10.5 years and exhibiting early-onset neonatal sepsis (positive blood cultures in the first 72 hours of life).

Results: Predominant pathogens in term and near-term infants were gram-positive compared with gram-negative organisms (mostly Escherichia coli) in preterm infants. Mothers of infants with antibiotic-resistant organisms were more likely to have prolonged rupture of membranes and prolonged hospitalization before delivery and to be treated with antibiotics. No trends towards more resistant strains of pathogens were recorded over the 10.5 years of the study period.

Conclusions: Early-onset neonatal sepsis in term infants differs in bacterial species from that in preterm infants, with predominantly gram-positive organisms in term and near-term infants and gram-negative organisms in preterms. Rates of bacterial resistance to the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin, though higher among infants born to mothers with prolonged hospitalization who had been treated with antibiotics, still remained very low in our department. Thus, it seems that our classic antibiotic regimen is still appropriate for both term and preterm newborns.
 

October 2006
V.H. Eisenberg, D. Raveh, Y. Meislish, B. Rudensky, Y. Ezra, A. Samueloff, A.I. Eidelman and M.S. Schimmel
 Background: Previous assessments of maternal group B Streptococcus carrier rates in women delivering at Shaare Zedek Medical Center ranged between 3.5 and 11% with neonatal sepsis rates of 0.2–0.9/1000 live births. Because of low colonization and disease rates, routine prenatal cultures of GBS[1] were not recommended, and intrapartum prophylaxis was mainly based on maternal risk factors.

Objectives: To determine whether this policy is still applicable. 

Methods: We performed prospective sampling and follow-up of women admitted for labor and delivery between February 2002 and July 2002. Vaginal and rectal cultures were obtained before the first pelvic examination. GBS isolation was performed using selective broth medium, and identified by latex agglutination and serotyping. Demographic data were collected by means of a standardized questionnaire. Data on the newborns were collected throughout 2002.

Results: Of the 629 sampled women, 86 had a positive culture and a carrier rate of 13.7%. A borderline significantly higher carriage rate was observed among mothers of North American origin (21% vs. 13.1%, P = 0.048), and a higher attack rate in their infants (3.8/1000 compared with 0.5/1000 live births in our general maternal population, P = 0.002). Eight newborns had early-onset neonatal GBS sepsis (a rate of 0.8/1000 live births), but none of them benefited from intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis.

Conclusions: An increased neonatal disease rate was observed in a population with a higher colonization rate than previously seen. In lieu of the higher carrier rates, we now recommend routine prenatal screening for GBS in our perinatal population.


 





[1] GBS = group B Streptococcus


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