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עמוד בית
Wed, 06.12.23

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February 2012
A. Farfel, E. Derazne, D. Tzur, N. Linder and Z. Laron

Background: Measurements of adolescents who at birth were large (long and/or heavy) for gestational age are scant.

Objectives: To determine the correlation between birth length and weight in female and male neonates born long and/or overweight for gestational age, with their height and weight at age 17.

Methods: We reviewed the records of the Rabin Medical Center for birth data of 96 full-term neonates born long and overweight for gestational age (FT-lo,ow), 33 full-term neonates born long but with normal weight for gestational age (FT-lo,nw), 148 full-term neonates born overweight but with normal length for gestational age (FT-nl,ow), and 401 full-term neonates born with normal birth length and weight (FT- nl,nw).

Results: Neonates of both genders born long and overweight at birth (FT-lo,ow) were taller and heavier at age 17 years than those born FT-nl,nw: females: 167.8 ± 5.1 cm and 64.6 ± 10.3 kg vs. 162.6 ± 5.5 cm and 59.3 ± 11.1 kg (P < 0.001 for height and P = 0.026 for weight) and males: 182.4 ± 8.1 cm and 80.6 ± 20.4 kg vs. 174.5 ± 6.2 cm and 67.4 ± 12.3 kg (P < 0.001). The correlations between birth length and height at age 17 for both genders were statistically significant (P < 0.001), as were those between birth weight and the weight and body mass index (BMI) at age 17 for both genders (P < 0.001). There was no correlation between birth length and weight or BMI at age 17.

Conclusions: Full-term neonates of both genders born large for gestational age become tall adolescents and weigh more at age 17 than children with a normal birth length and weight.

February 2008
S. Davidson, N. Sokolover, A. Erlich, A. Litwin, N. Linder and L. Sirota

Background: Many centers in Israel still use pre-1970 reference data for neonatal weight, length and head circumference. A recently published population-based reference overestimated the weight of premature infants.

Objective: To develop a national reference for birth weight, birth length, and head circumference by gestational age for singleton infants in Israel.

Methods: Data were collected on all singleton live births documented in the neonatal registry of Rabin Medical Center from 1991 to 2005 (n=82,066). Gestational age estimation was based on the last menstrual period until 1977 and early fetal ultrasound thereafter. Neonates with an implausible birth weight for gestational age (identified by the rule of median ± 5 standard deviations or expert clinical opinion) were excluded. Reference tables for fetal growth by gestational age were created for males and females separately.

Results: The growth references developed differed markedly from the Usher curves currently used in our department. Compared to the recently published population-based birth weight reference, our data were free of the problem of differential misclassification of birth weight for gestational age for the premature infants and very similar for the other gestational age groups. This finding reinforced the validity of our measurements of birth weight, as well as of birth length and head circumference.

Conclusions: Use of our new (birth length and head circumference) and improved (birth weight) gender-specific hospital-based reference for fetal growth may help to define normal and abnormal growth in the neonatal population of Israel and thereby improve neonatal care and public health comparisons.

September 2007
E. Israeli, B. Talis, N. Peled, R. Snier and J. El-On

Background: Serology of amebiasis is affected by low sensitivity and specificity.

Objectives: To evaluate the advantage of the indirect hemagglutination assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the diagnosis of amebiasis, using Entamoeba histolytica soluble antigen (macerated amebic antigens) prepared from four different virulent isolates, continuously cultivated in the presence of the original enteric bacteria.

Methods: Using IHA[1] and ELISA[2] with MAA[3] antigen we examined 147 sera samples from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, and 11 sera from amebiasis cases (confirmed by microscopy and copro-antigen ELISA ).

Results: Of 104 of the 147 (70.7%) symptomatic cases that were amebiasis positive by IHA, 81 (55.1%) were positive by MAA-ELISA. In addition, of 11 amebiasis cases confirmed by microscopy and copro-antigen ELISA , 7 (64%) were amebiasis positive by both tests. Four species of bacteria were isolated from the ameba cultures: Escherichia coli, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus lactis. Elimination of the bacteria from the cultures by an antibiotics cocktail containing gentamicin, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and vancomycin was the preferred method. Absorption of patients' sera to bacterial antigen prior to serological analysis had only a marginal effect.

Conclusions: These results indicate a correlation of 61% between the ELISA developed in this study and the IHA tests in the diagnosis of amebiasis.

[1] IHA = indirect hemagglutination assay

[2] ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

[3] MAA = macerated amoebic antigens

November 2005
N. Sharon, J. Schachter, R.T. Talnir, J. First, U. Rubinstein and R. Bilik
September 2004
D. Greenberg, P. Yagupsky, N. Peled, A. Goldbart, N. Porat and A. Tal

Background: Transmission of Pseudomonas aeruginosa among cystic fibrosis patients attending health camps has been reported previously.

Objectives: To determine the transmission of P. aeruginosa among CF[1] patients during three winter camps in the Dead Sea region in southern Israel.

Methods: Three consecutive CF patient groups were studied, each of which spent 3 weeks at the camp. The patients were segragated prior to camp attendance: patients who were not colonized with P. aeruginosa constituted the first group and colonized patients made up the two additional groups. Sputum cultures were obtained upon arrival, at mid-camp and on the last day. Environmental cultures were also obtained. Patients were separated during social activities and were requested to avoid social mingling. Isolates were analyzed by antibiotics susceptibility profile and by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

Results: Ninety isolates from 19 patients produced 28 different fingerprint patterns by PFGE[2]. Isolates from two siblings and two patients from the same clinic displayed the same fingerprint pattern. These patients were already colonized with these organisms upon arrival. Two couples were formed during the camp, but PFGE showed no transmission of organisms. All other patients' isolates displayed unique fingerprint patterns and were distinguishable from those of other attendees, and none of the P. aeruginosa-negative patients acquired P. aeruginosa during camp attendance. Environmental cultures were negative for P. aeruginosa.

Conclusions: We were unable to demonstrate cross-infection of P. aeruginosa among CF patients participating in health camps at the Dead Sea who were meticulously segregated.

[1] CF = cystic fibrosis

[2] PFGE = pulsed field gel electrophoresis

R. Tauman, S.H. Reisner, Y. Amitai, J. Wasser, H. Nehama and Y. Sivan

Background: Prone sleeping has been recognized as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome. Ten years ago, non-prone sleeping was recommended in many countries around the world including Israel. The rate of infants sleeping prone and the rate of parents' adherence with the recommendations have not been studied.

Objectives: To study infants' sleep position and parents’ adherence to recommendations, and to identify risk factors for prone sleeping following the campaign to prevent prone sleeping in the Israeli population.

Methods: We conducted a longitudinal telephone survey with the parents of 608 randomly selected 2 month old infants, repeated at 4 and 6 months.

Results: Non-prone sleeping decreased from 75% to 67% and 63% at 2, 4 and 6 months respectively. There was a significant relationship between prone positioning and the use of a home apnea monitor at 2 months (P = 0.038, odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 0.94–2.15). Other risk factors for prone sleeping were the level of religious practice, with ultra-Orthodox Jews having the highest prevalence (2 months: OR[1] 2.78, 95% CI[2] 1.75–4.55) and higher parity – especially in families with more than five children (P = 0.041).

Conclusions: The prone sleeping position is relatively high in Israel. Groups at high risk were closely associated with the level of religiousness and parity. Efforts to promote supine sleeping should be directed towards identifiable groups.

[1] OR = odds ratio

[2] CI = confidence interval

March 2004
Y. Fruchtman, D. Greenberg, E. Shany, R. Melamed, N. Peled and M. Lifshitz
November 1999
Nehama Linder MD, Lea Sirota MD, Amir Snapir MD, Irit Eisen MD, Nadav Davidovitch MD, Giora Kaplan MSc and Asher Barzilai MD

Background: Although the onset of fever in children often prompts parents to seek immediate treatment, the general level of parental knowledge on pediatric fever and administration of antipyretic medications is unknown. Parents without a basic understanding of treatment principles may give their children incorrect doses of medication. Overdosing may cause drug toxicity, while underdosing may lead to unnecessary, repeated clinic and/or emergency room visits.

Objectives: To assess parental decision-making with regard to treating fever in children, and its effectiveness, and to suggest methods for improving the level of treatment.

Methods: In this cross-sectional self-reported survey, questionnaires were completed by 650 parents who sought medical assistance for a child under the age of 10 years. Parents represented various socioeconomic levels, educational backgrounds and religious affiliations.

Results: Ninety-six percent of parents treated fevers that reached 38.5°C, and 77.6% treated fevers of only 38°C. Acetaminophen was the treatment of choice for 96% and dipyrone for 4%. Parental sources of information for managing and administering antipyretic drugs were medical personnel (40.7%), mother's or grandmother's experience (30%), and the enclosed leaflet or instructions on the bottle (29.3%). Forty-three percent of the parents administered the recommended dosage (10–20 mg/kg), whereas 24.3% used less and 32.7% used more; 11% exceeded a daily dosage of 120 mg/kg. 

Conclusions: A total of 57% of parents treated children with incorrect doses of antipyretic drugs. In 11% of the children treated, the daily dose was at a level that could cause severe toxicity. Parental knowledge of the treatment of fever must be improved.

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