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עמוד בית
Fri, 01.03.24

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February 2022
Erez Marcusohn MD, Maria Postnikov MD, Ofer Kobo MD, Yaron Hellman MD, Diab Mutlak MD, Danny Epstein MD, Yoram Agmon MD, Lior Gepstein MD PHD, and Robert Zukermann MD

Background: The diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AFIB) related cardiomyopathy relies on ruling out other causes for heart failure and on recovery of left ventricular (LV) function following return to sinus rhythm (SR). The pathophysiology underlying this pathology is multifactorial and not as completely known as the factors associated with functional recovery following the restoration of SR.

Objectives: To identify clinical and echocardiographic factors associated with LV systolic function improvement following electrical cardioversion (CV) or after catheter ablation in patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF) related to AFIB and normal LV function at baseline.

Methods: The study included patients with preserved EF at baseline while in SR whose LVEF had reduced while in AFIB and improved LVEF following CV. We compared patients who had improved LVEF to normal baseline to those who did not.

Results: Eighty-six patients with AFIB had evidence of reduced LV systolic function and improved EF following return to SR. Fifty-five (64%) returned their EF to baseline. Patients with a history of ischemic heart disease (IHD), worse LV function, and larger LV size during AFIB were less likely to return to normal LV function. Multivariant analysis revealed that younger patients with slower ventricular response, a history of IHD, larger LV size, and more significant deterioration of LVEF during AFIB were less likely to recover their EF to baseline values.

Conclusions: Patients with worse LV function and larger left ventricle during AFIB are less likely to return their baseline LV function following the restoration of sinus rhythm.

September 2010
D. Mutlak, D. Aronson, J. Lessick, S.A. Reisner, S. Dabbah and Y. Agmon

Background: Trans-aortic pressure gradient in patients with aortic stenosis and left ventricular systolic dysfunction is typically low but occasionally high.

Objectives: To examine the distribution of trans-aortic PG[1] in patients with severe AS[2] and severe LV[3] dysfunction and compare the clinical and echocardiographic characteristics and outcome of patients with high versus low PG.

Methods: Using the echocardiographic laboratory database at our institution, 72 patients with severe AS (aortic valve area ≤ 1.0 cm2) and severe LV dysfunction (LV ejection fraction ≤ 30%) were identified. The characteristics and outcome of these patients were compared.

Results: PG was high (mean PG ≥ 35 mmHg) in 32 patients (44.4%) and low (< 35 mmHg) in 40 (55.6%). Aortic valve area was slightly smaller in patients with high PG (0.63 ± 0.15 vs. 0.75 ± 0.16 cm2 in patients with low PG, P = 0.003), and LV ejection fraction was slightly higher in patients with high PG (26 ± 5 vs. 22 ± 5% in patients with low PG, P = 0.005). During a median follow-up period of 9 months 14 patients (19%) underwent aortic valve replacement and 46 patients (64%) died. Aortic valve replacement was associated with lower mortality (age and gender-adjusted hazard ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.05–0.82), whereas trans-aortic PG was not (P = 0.41).

Conclusions: A large proportion of patients with severe AS have relatively high trans-aortic PG despite severe LV dysfunction, a finding partially related to more severe AS and better LV function. Trans-aortic PG is not related to outcome in these patients.

[1] PG = pressure gradient

[2] AAS = aortic stenosis

[3] LV = left ventricular

January 2003
D. Rinkevich, J. Lessick, D. Mutlak, W. Markiewicz and S.A. Reisner

Background: With the introduction of surgery and percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty for relieving severe mitral stenosis the natural history of the disease has markedly altered.

Objectives: To determine the natural history of patients with moderate mitral valve stenosis.

Methods: Demographic, clinical and echocardiographic data were evaluated in 36 patients with moderate mitral stenosis during a follow-up of 71 ± 15 months.

Results: The 36 patients comprised 32 women and 4 men with a mean age of 43.7 ± 12.2 years; 28 were Jewish and 8 were of Arab origin. During follow-up, there was a significant decrease in mitral valve area, with an increase in mean mitral valve gradient and score. Mean loss of mitral valve area was 0.04 ± 0.11 cm2/year. No correlation was found between disease progression and age, past mitral valve commissurotomy, baseline mean gradient or mitral valve score. Larger baseline mitral valve area (P = 0.007) and Arab origin (P = 0.03) had an independent correlation to loss of mitral valve area. Fifteen patients (42%) did demonstrate any loss in mitral valve area during the follow-up period.

Conclusions: The rate of mitral valve narrowing in patients with moderate mitral stenosis is variable and cannot be predicted by patient’s age, past commissurotomy, valve score or gradient. Secondly, larger baseline mitral valve area and Arab origin showed an independent correlation to loss of mitral valve area; and finally, in many patients valve area did not change over a long observation period.

February 2002
Diab Mutlak, MD, Luis Gruberg, MD, Shimon Reisner, MD and Walter Markiewicz, MD, FACC

Background: Percutaneous transluminal septal ablation was recently introduced as an alternative to surgical treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. In this procedure, alcohol is injected into a proximal septal artery to create a localized myocardial infarction.

Objectives: To characterize the immediate and mediumterm results following PTSMA.

Methods: Of 13 patients referred for PTSMA, 8 were found suitable for the procedure. Hemodynamic parameters were evaluated prior to and following the procedure, and clinical and echo-Doppler parameters at 2 weeks and 9 months later.

Results: The procedure was technically successful in all patients. Resting left ventricular outflow gradient at rest (by Doppler) fell from 82 + 37 to 15 + 8 mmHg (P<0.001) 9 months later. Late post-procedural gradient after the Valsalva maneuver was 2 + 24 mmHg. The degree of mitral regurgitation fell from 2.0 + 0 to 1.5 + 0.5 (P<0.05). New York Heart Association class for dyspnea improved from 2.8 + 0.5 to 1.8 + (P<0.01) and Canadian Cardiovascular Society class for angina from 2.0 + 1.3 to 1.3 + 1.2 (P=0.08). Complete right bundle branch block developed in six patients, temporary complete atrioventricular block in three, and persistent block requiring permanent pacing in one. No flow in the distal left anterior descending coronary artery (presumably due to spilling of alcohol) was seen in one (with development of a small antero-apical infraction) and ventricular fibrillation 2 hours post-procedure in one. None of the patients died.

Conclusion: PTSMA provided a substantial reduction in left ventricular outflow gradient associated with an improvement in symptomatology. Serious complications are not uncommon. Long-term follow-up is unknown.

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