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עמוד בית
Wed, 29.05.24

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October 2022
Adrian Duek MD, Emmanuel Lellouche PhD, Sharon Ben Baruch MD, Reut Mashiach BSc, Yafit Segman MD, Gabriel Bryk PhD, Merav Leiba MD

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for approximately 10% of hematological malignancies. The monoclonal immunoglobulin G kappa (IgG-κ) daratumumab can bind to CD38 on MM cells and be detected in serum immunofixation (IF), causing pitfalls in M-protein quantification.

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of mitigating the interference of IgG MM treated with daratumumab.

Methods: Levels of Ig, free light chains (FLC) kappa (κ) and lambda (λ), serum protein electrophoresis (SPE)/IF, and Hydrashift 2/4 assays were assessed following manufacturer's instructions in three patients.

Results: Patient 1 was a 70-year-old male diagnosed with IgG-λ MM. The IF distinguished two monoclonal bands (IgG-κ and IgG-λ). With the Hydrashift assay, the daratumumab–anti-daratumumab immune complex shifted the IgG-κ to the α zone, suggesting that the monoclonal IgG-κ band corresponded to daratumumab. Patient 2 was a 63-year-old male with IgG-κ MM who was receiving daratumumab once every other week. SPE/IF assay revealed a faint monoclonal IgG-κ band in the g zone. A stronger monoclonal band was observed after administration. The IgG-κ band disappeared on the Hydrashift assay, while the daratumumab–anti-daratumumab complex appeared as a broad smear in the α-region. Patient 3, a 63-year-old male diagnosed with IgG-λMM, was receiving daratumumab once every other month. The IF assay showed two distinct bands (IgG-κ and IgG-λ) post-daratumumab administration. The shift to the α zone of the IgG-κ bands on the Hydrashift assay confirmed that the additional band observed post-infusion was due to the daratumumab.

Conclusions: The Hydrashift assay can help distinguish daratumumab from endogenous M-spike.

August 2021
Omer Or MD, Rehan Saiyed MD, Eric Marty MD, Angelique Boyer BS, Yuliya S. Jahnwar MD, Rueben Niesvizky MD, and Joseph M. Lane MD

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) affects the long bones in 25% of patients. The advent of positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners offers the possibility of both metabolic and radiographic information and may help determine fracture risk. To the best of our knowledge, no published study correlates these two factors with long bone fractures.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of PET/CT on fracture risk assessment in multiple myeloma patients.

Methods: We identified all bone marrow biopsy proven multiple myeloma patients from 1 January 2010 to 31 January 2015 at a single institution. We prospectively followed patients with long bone lesions using PET/CT scan images.

Results: We identified 119 patients (59 males/60 females) with 256 long bone lesions. Mean age at diagnosis was 58 years. The majority of lesions were in the femur (n=150, 59%) and humerus (n=84, 33%); 13 lesions in 10 patients (8%) required surgery for impending (n=4) or actual fracture (n=9). Higher median SUVmax was measured for those with cortical involvement (8.05, range 0–50.8) vs. no involvement (5.0, range 2.1–18.1). SUVmax was found to be a predictor of cortical involvement (odds ratio = 1.17, P = 0.026). No significant correlation was found between SUVmax and pain or fracture (P = 0.43).

Conclusions: Improved medical treatment resulted improvement in 8% of patients with an actual or impending fracture. The orthopedic surgeons commonly use the Mirels classification for long bone fracture prediction. Adding PET/CT imaging to study in myeloma long bone lesions did not predict fracture risk directly but suggested it indirectly by cortical erosion.

September 2019
Elena Chertok Shacham MD, Shay Brikman MD, Dafna Chap Marshak MD, Veronika Denisov MD and Guy Dori MD PhD
May 2018
Arie Markel MD, Nayef Habashe MD, Ariel Aviv MD, Olga Monich MD, Irit Elmalah MD, Nadeem Marei MD and David Tovbin MD
October 2015
Haim Shmilovich MD, Svetlana Trestman MD, Stella Bak MD, Galit Aviram MD, Shmuel Banai MD, Arie Steinvil MD and Gad Keren MD
November 2010
December 2006
A. Elis, J. Radnay, H. Shapiro, D. Itzhaky, Y. Manor and M. Lishner
 Background: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is defined by the presence of: low serum and/or urine monoclonal protein level; less than 10% plasma cells in bone marrow; normal serum calcium, creatinine and hemoglobin levels; and no bone lesions on full skeletal X-ray survey.

Objectives: To study the necessity of bone marrow examination for the diagnosis and clinical course of MGUS[1].

Methods: We retrospectively screened the medical records of all patients in whom monoclonal protein was found in the serum during 2001–2002 in the medical laboratories of Sapir Medical Center. Asymptomatic patients who had serum monoclonal immunoglobulin G < 3.0 g/dl or IgA[2] < 2.0 g/dl or IgM < 1.0 g/dl without anemia, renal failure, hypercalcemia or any bone lesions on skeletal survey were eligible. Full records of patients who were evaluated in the hematology clinic were available (group 1). The remaining patients were followed by their family physicians; thus we had access only to their electronic files including laboratory results and new diagnoses (group 2). Demographic and clinical parameters as well as clinical course were evaluated.

Results: Both groups (57 and 255 patients, respectively) had similar demographic, laboratory and clinical characteristics. Bone marrow examination was performed in 30 of 57 patients (group 1): 16 were normal, 8 had an excess of normal plasma cells, and 6 had excess of pathologic plasma cells. However, only in two of the latter six could a diagnosis of multiple myeloma be established. All group 1 patients were followed for 22 ± 11 months and only two developed overt multiple myeloma. During the same period, 6 of 255 patients (group 2) were diagnosed as multiple myeloma and 3 as MGUS in other hospitals. The rest had a stable course with no change in their laboratory values.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that bone marrow examination should not be performed routinely in patients who fulfill strict clinical and laboratory criteria of MGUS.


[1] MGUS = monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

[2] Ig = immunoglobulin

November 2004
N. Hiller, O. Goitein and Y.J. Ashkenazi
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