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עמוד בית
Fri, 31.05.24

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May 2024
Eliyahu Hayim Mizrahi MD MHA

Similar to ageism, which is defined as discrimination against older people due to negative and inaccurate stereotypes [1], geriatrism, a new concept in medical field, reflects a negative attitude and bias toward the study of geriatrics, especially observed among students specializing in therapeutic fields such as nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, psychology, and medicine. However, it implies a reluctance of all professionals in the therapeutic fields, including young medical doctors, to specialize in treating individuals aged 65 years and older.

October 2021
Anat Ekka Zohar PhD, Jennifer Kertes MPH, Erica Cohen-Iunger MPH MD, Ilya Novikov PhD, Naama Shamir Stein MA, Sharon Hermoni Alon MD, and Miri Mizrahi Reuveni MD

Background: Israel has experienced three waves of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection since late February 2020, with lockdown and other measures employed to contain infection rates. In cooperation with the Israel Ministry of Health, serological testing was conducted by all four health maintenance organizations (HMO) in order to estimate national infection rates and the proportion of previously undetected disease.

Objectives: To estimate the proportion of the population that was seropositive, identify factors associated with seropositive outcome, and approximate the proportion of residents that were asymptomatic.

Methods: Seroconversion rates (IgG) were measured in a representative sample of over 17,000 members of Maccabi Healthcare Services. Direct standardization was used to estimate the seropositive rates for COVID-19 infection for members of the HMO. Rates were adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of the testing products used. In addition to blood sampling, respondents were asked to complete a digital survey regarding potential exposures and symptoms experienced.

Results: It was estimated that 1.9% of the adult HMO population was seropositive 4 months after the first infected person was identified in the country. Seroconversion was associated with travel abroad and exposure to infected individuals. Loss of smell and taste, fever, cough, and fatigue are associated with infection. Of those found to be seropositive for COVID-19, 160 (59%) had a prior negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or no PCR test at all.

Conclusions: Adult seropositive rates of infection were low relative to other countries. The findings suggest that early initiatives to limit infection entry and spread were effective

May 2021
Lea Kahanov MD, José E. Cohen MD, Shifra Fraifeld MBA, Cezar Mizrahi MD, Ronen R. Leker MD, Samuel Moscovici MD, and Sergey Spektor MD PhD

Background: Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery microvascular bypass (STA-MCA MVB) is an important strategy for the management of selected patients.

Objective: To present our 19-year experience with STA-MCA MVB.

Methods: Data for consecutive patients who underwent STA-MCA MVB from 2000–2019 due to moyamoya/moyamoya-like disease, complex intracranial aneurysms, or intractable brain ischemia due to internal carotid artery or MCA occlusive disease with repeated ischemic events were retrospectively analyzed under a waiver of informed consent. Key surgical steps and the important role of neuroendovascular interventions are presented. Surgical results and late outcomes were analyzed.

Results: The study included 32 patients (17 women [53%], 15 men [47%]), mean age 42.94 years (range 16–66). The patients underwent 37 STA-MCA MVB procedures during the study period: 22 with moyamoya/moyamoya-like disease (69%) underwent 27 surgeries (five bilateral); 7 patients with complex aneurysms (22%) and 3 patients with vascular occlusive disease (9%) underwent unilateral bypass. Five of seven aneurysms were treated with coiling or flow-diverter stent implant prior to bypass surgery; two were clipped during the bypass procedure. There were no surgical complications, no perioperative mortality, and no death from complications related to neurovascular disease at late follow-up. Transient neurological deficits following 7/37 surgeries (19%) resolved with no permanent neurologic sequelae. Transient ischemic attacks occurred only in the immediate postoperative period in four patients (11%).

Conclusions: In specific cases, STA-MCA MVB is a feasible and clinically effective procedure. It is important to preserve this technique in the surgical armamentarium

April 2017
Eliyahu H. Mizrahi MD MHA, Emilia Lubart MD, Anthony Heymann PhD and Arthur Leibovitz MD

Background: Holocaust survivors report a much higher prevalence of osteoporosis and fracture in the hip joint compared to those who were not Holocaust survivors.

Objective: To evaluate whether being a Holocaust survivor could affect the functional outcome of hip fracture in patients 64 years of age and older undergoing rehabilitation.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study compromising 140 consecutive hip fracture patients was conducted in a geriatric and rehabilitation department of a university-affiliated hospital. Being a Holocaust survivor was based on registry data. Functional outcome was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM)TM at admission and discharge from the rehabilitation ward. Data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square test, and linear regression analysis. 

Results: Total and motor FIM scores at admission (P = 0.004 and P = 0.006, respectively) and total and motor FIM gain scores at discharge (P = 0.008 and P = 0.004 respectively) were significantly higher in non-Holocaust survivors compared with Holocaust survivors. A linear regression analysis showed that being a Holocaust survivor was predictive of lower total FIM scores at discharge (β = -0.17, P = 0.004).

Conclusion: Hip fracture in Holocaust survivors showed lower total, motor FIM and gain scores at discharge compared to non-Holocaust survivor patients. These results suggest that being a Holocaust survivor could adversely affect the rehabilitation outcome following fracture of the hip and internal fixation. 


July 2015
Tamar Brufman MD, Ronen Ben-Ami MD, Michal Mizrahi MD, Edna Bash MSc and Yael Paran MD

Background: Mycetoma is a chronic and destructive infection caused by either fungus or bacteria. Mycetoma has a characteristic clinical presentation of a triad of tumor-like swelling, draining sinuses, and macroscopic grains. Mycetoma infection is extremely rare in Israel; however, in view of the recent immigration from mycetoma-hyperendemic regions of Africa to Israel, physicians in Israel may encounter this infection.

Objectives: To present two cases of mycetoma caused by Madurella mycatomatis in immigrants from endemic regions in Sudan treated at our hospital, and review the current literature. 

Conclusions: Health care professionals in Israel should suspect mycetoma in patients from endemic countries who present with tumor-like swelling especially in the lower extremity. Health care workers should be able to recognize mycetoma and provide the optimal treatment before the lesion progresses to an advanced and disabling disease. 


December 2014
Ronit Marcus MD, Eli Shiloah MD, Avi Mizrahi MD, Osnat Gerah-Yehoshua and Micha J. Rapoport MD
May 2011
E. Hayim Mizrahi, A. Waitzman, M. Arad and A. Adunsky

Background: Total cholesterol is significantly associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Patients with ischemic stroke and high cholesterol levels may show better functional outcome after rehabilitation.

Objectives: To study the possible interrelations between hypercholesterolemia and functional outcome in elderly survivors of ischemic stroke.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review study of consecutive patients (age ≥ 60 years) with acute stroke admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation ward in a university-affiliated hospital. The presence or absence of hypercholesterolemia was based on registry data positive for hypercholesterolemia, defined as total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl (5.17 mmol/L). Functional outcome of patients with hypercholesterolemia (Hchol) and without (NHchol) was assessed by the Functional Independence Measurement scale (FIMTM) at admission and discharge. Data were analyzed by t-test and chi-square test, as well as linear regression analysis.

Results: The complete data for 551 patients (age range 60–96 years)w ere available for final analysis; 26.7% were diagnosed as having hypercholesterolemia. Admission total FIM[1] scores were significantly higher in patients with Hchol[2] (72.1 ± 24.8) compared with NHchol[3] patients (62.2 ± 24.7) (P < 0.001). A similar difference was found at discharge (Hchol 90.8 ± 27.9 vs. NHchol 79.7 ± 29.2, P < 0.001). However, total FIM change upon discharge was similar in both groups (18.7 ± 13.7 vs. 17.6 ± 13.7, P = 0.4). Regression analyses showed that high Mini Mental State Examination scores (β = 0.13, P = 0.01) and younger age (β = -0.12, P = 0.02) were associated with higher total FIM change scores upon discharge. Total cholesterol was not associated with better total FIM change on discharge (β = -0.012, P = 0.82).

Conclusions: Elderly survivors of stroke with Hchol who were admitted for rehabilitation showed higher admission and discharge FIM scores but similar functional FIM gains as compared to NHchol patients. High cholesterol levels may be useful in identifying older individuals with a better rehabilitation potential.

[1] FIM = Functional Independence Measurement

[2] Hcol = hypercholesterolemia

[3] NHchol = non-hypercholesterolemia

March 2010
M. Stein, H. Roisin, B. Morag, S. Ringel, D. Tasher, M. Vohl, A. Mizrahi, M. Raz and E. Somekh

Background: While the burden of rotavirus infection with regard to hospitalizations has been extensively investigated, there are sparse data regarding the impact and the cost of this infection on the ambulatory part of the health system in Israel.

Objectives: To investigate the burden of rotavirus infection on the ambulatory system in Israel.

Methods: Infants younger than 3 years old examined for acute gastrointestinal symptoms in four pediatric clinics had their stool tested for rotavirus. The parents were contacted 7–10 days later and questioned about the symptoms of illness, medications given, use of diapers, consumption of formula, and any loss of parents' workdays.

Results: Rotavirus was detected in 71 of the 145 stool samples tested (49%). A total of 51 parents responded to the telephonic survey. Patients' mean age was 15.4 months. Three patients were hospitalized due to the illness. The mean duration of fever was 1.7 days. Infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis had on average 2.25 days of vomiting and 7.5 days of diarrhea. The average number of workdays lost was 2.65 days per RVGE[1] case. The cost of the average case of RVGE in Israel is 257 euros; 69.64% of this cost (179 euros) is due to parental work loss.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the economic impact of the ambulatory cases in Israel is quite significant.


[1] RVGE = rotavirus gastroenteritis

April 2008
S. Atias, S. Mizrahi, R. Shaco-Levy and A.Yussim

Background: In contrast to the relative scarcity of donor kidneys and hearts, the potential supply of deceased donor pancreata is exceeding the demand. However, this potential organ surplus is not being fully realized because in current transplantation practice the duration of pancreas storage before transplantation is limited and many organs with established or anticipated cold ischemia time exceeding 8–10 hours are discarded owing to the extreme vulnerability of pancreatic tissue to anaerobic damage caused by preservation.

Objectives: To reduce cold ischemic injury in order to increase the utilization of donor pancreases in Israel for whole-organ and cell transplantation.

Methods: We evaluated a novel two-layer preservation oxygenated cold storage method that uses perfluorocarbon to continuously supply oxygen to the pancreas during preservation in conventional University of Wisconsin solution.

Results: Pancreatic tissue morphology, viability and adenosine-triphosphate content were serially examined during preservation of the pig pancreas for 24 hours either by a two-layer or by conventional simple cold storage. Already after 12 hours of storage, the superiority of the two-layer method over the University of Wisconsin method was apparent. Starting at this time point and continuing throughout the 24 hours of preservation, the tissue architecture, mitochondrial integrity, cellular viability and ATP[1] tissue concentration were improved in samples preserved in oxygenated UW[2]/PFC[3] as compared to controls stored in conventional UW solution alone.

Conclusions: The UW/PFC two-layer preservation method allowed tissue ATP synthesis and amelioration of cold ischemic tissue damage during extended 24 hour pancreas preservation. This method could be implemented in clinical practice to maximize utilization of pancreata for whole-organ and islet transplantation as well as for pancreas sharing with remote centers.

[1] ATP = adenosine-triphosphate

[2] UW = University of Wisconsin

[3] PFC = perfluorocarbon

November 2003
E.H. Mizrachi, S. Noy, B-A. Sela, Y. Fleissig, M. Arad and A. Adunsky

Background: A high total plasma homocysteine level is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, but the evidence connecting plasma tHcy level with hypertension is inconsistent.

Objective: To determine the association between plasma tHcy level and some common risk factors for cerebrovascular disease (recurrent  stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and hyperlipidemia) in patients presenting with primary or recurrent acute ischemic strokes.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional chart analysis was conducted in a university-affiliated referral hospital. During an 18 month period we identified 113 acute ischemic stroke patients (mean age 71.2), 25 of whom had a recurrent stroke. Plasma tHcy[1] level, obtained 2–10 days after stroke onset, was determined by the high performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the independent relationship between each potential risk factor and tHcy level above or below the 75th percentile.

Results:  Hypertension was more frequent among patients with plasma tHcy level above than below the 75th percentile (51.7% vs. 80.8%, respectively, P = 0.012). After adjusting for demographic and clinical variables, the odds ratio for recurrent stroke and hypertension, with tHcy above or below the 75th percentile, was 3.4 (95% confidence interval 1.01–10.4, P = 0.037) and 4.02 (95% CI[2] 1.2–13.9, P = 0.028), respectively.

Conclusions: A high plasma tHcy level is associated with history of hypertension and recurrent stroke among patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke. These results were independent of other risk factors such as atrial fibrillation, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Hypertensive stroke patients with hyperhomocysteinemia should be identified as high risk patients as compared to non-hypertensive stroke patients, and may warrant more vigorous measures for secondary prevention.

[1] tHcy = total plasma homocysteine

[2] CI = confidence interval

September 2003
S. Finci, R. Rachmani, E. Arbel and S. Mizrahi

Background:  One of the major reasons for the shortage of organs for transplantation in Israel is the failure to identify potential donors. According to the World Health Organization, the expected number of potential donors in Israel is 300 per year. In recent years an average of only 200 donors (2/3) has been identified.

Objective: To identify the reasons for the gap between the potential and the actual number of organ donors.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all potential donors at the Soroka University Medical Center between October 1997 through September 1999.

Results: The total of 183 death records was consistent with the minimal inclusion criteria for potential organ donation, of which 41 were suspected to be potential brain death (PBD) In 31 cases an ad hoc committee had declared brain death, and the patients were evaluated for organ donation. However, in 10 cases no committee was formed. We found that 24.4% (10/41) of the potential donors had not been designated as such by their medical team.

Conclusion: We believe that a comprehensive education program for medical and nursing staff might increase awareness for organ donation and may eliminate the gap between the potential and actual number of organ donors.

March 2002
Eliyahu H. Mizrahi, MD, Donald W. Jacobsen, PhD and Robert P. Friedland, MD
January 2002
Rasmi Magadle MD, Paltiel Weiner MD, Marinella Rabner MD, Miri Mizrahi-Reuveni MD and Avi Davidovich MD

Background: The association between coronary and/or other arterial aneurysms and polycystic kidney disease is well known. While myocardial infarction is a possible complication of atheroscletotic coronary aneurysms, it is reasonable to assume that CA[1] in patients with PKD[2] may make them prone them for a similar complication.

Objective: To evaluate the possible occurrence of CA and MI[3] in first relatives of a patient with PKD, CA and MI.

Patients: We studied 12 family members: 2 parents, 8 sisters and 2 brothers of a young woman who was incidentally diagnosed as having a MI, while her mother was known to have PKD. We used electrocardiogram, thallium-image test, and transthoracic echocardiography to determine MI, ultrasonography of the kidney to determine PKD, and coronary angiography and ventriculography to determine CA and MI, respectively. 

Results: PKD was detected in seven family members, while CA and MI were found in five and three of them, respectively.

Conclusions: In a family with PKD we detected a high prevalence of CA, with MI as a complication of the latter.


[1] CA = coronary aneurysms

[2] PKD = polcystic kidney disease

[3] MI = myocardial infarction

August 2001
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