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עמוד בית
Sat, 02.03.24

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March 2022
Zahi Abu Ghosh MD, Mony Shuvy MD, Ronen Beeri MD, Israel Gotsman MD, Batla Falah MD, Mahsati Ibrahimli MD, and Dan Gilon MD

Background: Cancer patients with heart failure (HF) and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) are often considered to be at risk for surgical mitral valve repair/replacement. Severe MR inducing symptomatic HF may prevent delivery of potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy and complicate fluid management with other cancer treatments.

Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) in oncology patients with HF and significant MR.

Methods: Our study comprised 145 patients who underwent PMVR, MitraClip, at Hadassah Medical Center between August 2015 and September 2019, including 28 patients who had active or history of cancer. Data from 28 cancer patients were compared to 117 no-cancer patients from the cohort.

Results: There was no significant difference in the mean age of cancer patients and no-cancer patients (76 vs. 80 years, P = 0.16); 67% of the patients had secondary (functional) MR. Among cancer patients, 21 had solid tumor and 7 had hematologic malignancies. Nine patients (32%) had active malignancy at the time of PMVR. The mean short-term risk score of the patients was similar in the two groups, as were both 30-day and 1-year mortality rates (7% vs. 4%, P = 0.52) and (29% vs. 16%, P = 0.13), respectively.

Conclusion: PMVR in cancer patients is associated with similar 30-day and 1-year survival rate compared with patients without cancer. PMVR should be considered for cancer patients presenting with HF and severe MR and despite their malignancy. This approach may allow cancer patients to safely receive planned oncological treatment

May 2019
Shmuel Schwartzenberg MD, Ran Kornowski MD, Yaron Shapira MD, Abid Assali MD, Mordehay Vatury MD, Leor Perl MD, Hana Vaknin-Assa MD and Alexander Sagie MD

Background: The MitraClip procedure is becoming an acceptable alternative for high-risk patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) due to functional (FMR) or degenerative (DMR) disease and suitable mitral anatomy.

Objectives: To evaluate the results of MitraClip at our institute in carefully selected patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records and echocardiography data from January 2012 to December 2017.

Results: A total of 39 MitraClip procedures in 37 patients (aged 75 ± 12 years, 9 women) was performed. Twenty-four patients presented with FMR, 12 with DMR, and 1 with combined pathology. One-day post-procedure MR was moderate to low in 86.1% of patients, with immediate device success in 88.8%. MR at 1 year was moderate to low in 79% at 1 year. Survival at 1 year was 86% and at 2 years 69.4%. Peri-procedural (< 1 week) death and MitraClip failure occurred in one and three patients, respectively. New York Heart Association score improved to class 1 or 2 in 37% of patients at 1 year vs. one patient at baseline. Post-procedural systolic pulmonary pressure was reduced from 53 (range 48–65) to 43 (range 36–52) mmHg at 1 month with a subsequent plateau at follow-up, to 41 (34–57) mmHg at 6 months, and to 47 (38–50) at 12 months.

Conclusions: MitraClip in severe MR resulted in modest improvement in functional status and pulmonary pressure with a small risk of immediate procedural complications. Outcomes are encouraging considering the natural course of MR and the risks of surgical intervention.

February 2014
Edward Koifman, Paul Fefer, Ilan Hay, Micha Feinberg, Elad Maor and Victor Guetta
Background: Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair using the MitraClip® system has evolved as a new tool in the treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR).

Objectives: To present our initial experience with MitraClip implantation in 20 high risk patients at Sheba Medical Center.

Methods: Twenty high surgical risk patients with symptomatic significant MR underwent MitraClip implantation. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were recorded at baseline and at follow-up.

Results: The patients’ mean age was 76 years and 65% were male. Coronary artery disease was present in 85% and 45% had previous bypass surgery. Renal failure was present in 65%, atrial fibrillation in 60%, and 30% had an implantable cardioverter defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization therapy device. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 36%. Grade III-IV MR was present in all patients with the vast majority suffering from functional MR secondary to ventricular remodeling. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was III-IV in 90%. Patients were followed for a mean of 231 days. Acute reduction of MR grade to ≤ 2 was accomplished in 19 of the 20 patients (95%) with a 30 day mortality of 5%. At follow-up MR was reduced to ≤ 2 in 64% of patients, and NYHA class improved in 70% of patients. An additional 2 patients (11%) died during follow-up.

Conclusions: MitraClip implantation is feasible and safe in high risk highly symptomatic patients with significant MR. Acute and mid-term results are comparable to similar high risk patient cohorts in the literature. Continued surveillance and longer follow-up are needed to elucidate which patients are most likely to benefit from the procedure.

October 2013
L. Perl, M. Vaturi, A. Assali, Y. Shapira, E. Bruckheimer, T. Ben-Gal, H. Vaknin-Assa, A. Sagie and R. Kornowski
 Background: Mitral regurgitation (MR) causes increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure patients and is often associated with augmented surgical risk.

Objectives: To assess the preliminary results of transcatheter mitral valve leaflet repair (TMLR) in a single academic center.

Methods: Data were collected prospectively in the cardiology department of Rabin Medical Center in 2012. Ten consecutive patients (age 69.3 ± 15.9 years, ejection fraction 36.5 ± 9.4) who were poor surgical candidates with severe functional MR underwent general anesthesia, followed by trans-septal puncture and a TMLR procedure using the MitraClip device.

Results: All 10 patients were considered to have severe functional MR prior to TMLR treatment and were all symptomatic; the mean New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was 3.4 ± 0.5. The MR severity was 4 ± 0. There were no immediate complications or failures of the procedure. One patient died on day 5 due to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Immediately following TMLR all 10 patients showed a profound MR reduction to a mean severity grade of 1.6 ± 0.6. At one month after the procedure, NYHA had decreased to an average of 1.7 ± 1.0 and was at least grade 2 in all but one patient. After 6 months the MR remained ≤ 2 in six of eight patients, with a NYHA average of 1.4 ± 0.5.

Conclusions: The MitraClip procedure was shown to be relatively safe, providing significant clinical benefits to a relatively sick population with severe MR. It is therefore an important alternative to surgery in these high risk patients.

 

October 2012
Y. Turgeman, A. Feldman, K. Suleiman, L.I. Bushari, I. Lavi and L. Bloch

Background: Understanding the mechanism and the main components involved in rheumatic mitral regurgitation (MR) associated with dominant pliable mitral stenosis (MS) may improve our ability to repair some mixed rheumatic mitral valve pathologies.

Objectives: To assess mitral valve structural components in pure mitral stenosis versus mitral stenosis associated with mild regurgitation

Methods: Using two-dimensional echocardiography, we performed mitral valve structural analysis in two groups of patients prior to balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV). The first group, consisting of 13 females and 2 males (mean age 39 ± 5 years), suffered from pure pliable mitral stenosis (PPMS), while the second group, with 22 females and 2 males (mean age 44 ± 5 years), had mixed mitral valve disease (MMVD) characterized by mild MR in the presence of dominant pliable MS. All echocardiographic measurements relating to the mechanism of MR were undertaken during the systolic phase.

Results: The mean Wilkins scores of the PPMS and MMVD groups were 7 ± 1 and 8 ± 1 respectively (P = 0.004). No significant differences were found between the MMVD group and the PPMS group regarding annular circumference (15.5 ± 1.4 cm vs. 15.4 ± 1.6 cm, P = 0.84), annular diameter (36 ± 4 mm vs. 38 ± 5 mm, P = 0.18), and chordae tendinae length directed to the anterior mitral leaflet (AML) (10 ± 2 mm vs. 11 ± 2 mm, P = 0.137). However, anterior vs. posterior mitral leaflet length during systole was significantly lower in the MMVD than in the PPMS group (2.2 ± 0.5 vs. 2.8 ± 0.4, P = 0.02), whereas the AML thickness at the co-aptation point was greater in the MMVD than in the PPMS group (7 ± 1 vs. 5 ± 1 mm, P = 0.0004).

Conclusions: In rheumatic valves, thickening and shortening of the AML are the main factors determining the appearance of mild MR in the presence of dominant pliable MS.

March 2010
M. Vaturi, T. Hadar, I. Yedidya, Y. Shapira, D. Monakier, D.E. Weisenberg and A. Sagie

Background: Left atrial volume and exercise capacity are strong predictors of cardiovascular risk. Decreased exercise capacity is expected when LAV[1] is increased due to its association with abnormal left ventricular filling pressure. However, LAV enlargement is expected in chronic mitral regurgitation as well.

Objectives: To examine the linkage between LAV and exercise capacity in chronic MR[2] and to determine whether larger LAV has indeed better exercise capacity in patients with chronic severe degenerative MR and good LV systolic function.

Methods: The study included asymptomatic patients with severe chronic degenerative MR and normal LV[3] systolic function that underwent stress echocardiography. LAV was measured at rest using the biplane Simpson’s method and indexed to body surface area. The cutoff of good exercise capacity was determined at 7 METS.

Results: The patient group comprised 52 consecutive patients (age 60 ± 14 years, 36 males). Two subgroups (19 vs. 33 patients), age- and gender-matched, were formed according to LAVi[4] cutoff of 42 ml/m2. Those with higher LAVi had lower exercise capacity (P = 0.004) albeit similar MR grade, baseline blood pressure, LV function and size. Receiver-operator curve analysis revealed indexed LAV value of ≤ 42 as 51% sensitive and 88% specific for predicting exercise capacity > 7 METS (AUC[5] = 0.7, P = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, age, gender and LAVi were identified as independent predictors of exercise capacity.

Conclusions: In asymptomatic patients with severe chronic degenerative MR and normal LV systolic function, mild enlargement of the left atrium (≤ 42 ml/m2) is associated with good exercise capacity.






[1] LAV = left atrial volume

[2] MR = mitral regurgitation

[3] LV = left ventricular

[4] LAVi = LAV indexed to body surface area

[5] AUC = area under the curve


January 2006
S. Silberman, A. Oren, M. W. Klutstein, M. Deeb, E. Asher, O. Merin, D. Fink, D. Bitran.

Background: Ischemic mitral regurgitation is associated with reduced survival after coronary artery bypass surgery.

Objectives: To compare long-term survival among patients undergoing coronary surgery for reduced left ventricular function and severe ischemic MR[1] in whom the valve was either repaired, replaced, or no intervention was performed.

Methods: Eighty patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and severe MR underwent coronary bypass surgery. The mean age of the patients was 65 years (range 42–82), and 63 (79%) were male. Sixty-three (79%) were in preoperative NYHA functional class III-IV (mean NYHA 3.3), and 26 (32%) were operated on an urgent/emergent basis. Coronary artery bypass surgery was performed in all patients. The mitral valve was repaired in 38 and replaced in 14, and in 28 there was no intervention. The clinical profile was similar in the three groups, although patients undergoing repair were slightly younger.

Results: Operative mortality was 15% (8%, 14%, and 25% for the repair, replacement and no intervention respectively; not significant). Long-term follow up was 100% complete, for a mean of 38 months (range 2–92). Twenty-nine patients (57%) were in NYHA I-II (mean NYHA 2.3). Among the surgery survivors, late survival was improved in the repair group compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Predictors for late mortality were non-repair of the mitral valve, residual MR, and stroke (P = 0.005).

Conclusions: Patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy and severe MR undergoing coronary bypass surgery should have a mitral procedure at the time of surgery. Mitral valve repair offers a survival advantage as compared to replacement or no intervention on the valve. Patients with residual MR had the worst results.






[1] MR = mitral regurgitation


January 2003
S. Goland, G. Loutaty, A. Arditi, E. Snir, I. Abend and A. Caspi

Background: Concomitant mitral valve regurgitation is often present in patients with aortic stenosis. The additional MV[1] replacement is associated with high operative risk. Previous studies have shown an amelioration of MV regurgitation after aortic valve replacement but most of the patient groups were heterogenous.

Objectives: To determine whether AV[2] replacement for aortic stenosis has any effect on MV regurgitation.

Methods: We reviewed two-dimensional echocardiography and color flow Doppler assessment of both aortic stenosis and MV regurgitation severity in 30 patients. Patients with previous MV surgery, organic MV disease, occlusive carotid artery disease, ejection fraction < 50%, and coexisting significant AV regurgitation were excluded. Preoperatively, MV regurgitation was mild in 23 patients (77%) and moderate in 7 (23%); in no patient was the condition severe. All patients had severe atrial stenosis (peak average aortic gradient was 86  ± 22 mmHg in the mild MV regurgitation group, and 83 ± 26 mmHg in the moderate group). The patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of MV regurgitation (associated mild, and moderate). Group 2, with moderate MV regurgitation, was the most problematic in terms of decision making for concomitant MV surgery. Therefore, additional assessment of several parameters was required.

Results: There was a significant decrease in MV regurgitation area (7.6 ± 1.9 vs. 3.0 ± 1.2 cm2, P £ 0.012) and percent (28 ± 5% vs. 12 ± 6%, P £ 0.001) between pre- and postoperative evaluation. Thus, the severity of the condition in all patients with moderate MV regurgitation decreased after AV replacement; in the mild group it remained unchanged in 53% or improved in 47%. There was no association between the preoperative gradient on the aortic valve and the degree of MV regurgitation.

Conclusions: In our population of patients with severe atrial stenosis there were no patients with coexisting severe MV regurgitation. The decision to repair or replace a severely leaking mitral valve is an easy one, as in mild MV regurgitation. The clinical problem often presents in patients with severe aortic stenosis and moderate MV regurgitation. We believe that additional MV surgery is not necessary, at least in patients with preserved left ventricular function and without organic MV disease.






[1] MV = mitral valve



[2] AV = aortic valve


March 2001
Marina Leitman, MD, Eli Peleg, MD, Simcha Rosenblat, MD, Eddy Sucher, MD, Ruthie Wolf, Stanislav Sedanko, Ricardo Krakover, MD and Zvi Vered, MD
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