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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.04.24

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July 2019
Massimo Ralli MD PhD, Alessandro Lambiase MD PhD, Marco Artico MD, Marco de Vincentiis MD and Antonio Greco MD

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive death of motor neurons leading to fatal paralysis. The causes of ALS remain unknown; however, evidence supports the presence of autoimmune mechanisms contributing to pathogenesis. Although several environmental factors have been proposed, the only established risk factors are older age, male gender, and a family history of ALS. To date, there are no diagnostic test for ALS, and clinicians rely on the combination of upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron signs in the same body region. The aim of this paper was to provide a comprehensive review of current clinical literature with special focus on the role of autoimmunity in ALS, differential diagnosis, and available therapeutic approaches. Current evidence suggests a contribution of the innate immune system in ALS, with a role of microglial cell activation at the sites of neurodegeneration. The median time from symptom onset to diagnosis of ALS is 14 months, and this time estimate is mainly based on specific clinical signs and exclusion of ALS-like conditions. Several therapeutic approaches have been proposed, including immunosuppressive drugs, to reduce disease progression. Riluzole has been established as the only, although modestly effective, disease modifying therapy, extending mean patient survival by 3to 6 months. Recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology mechanisms of ALS encourage realistic hope for new treatment approaches. To date, the cornerstones of the management of patients with ALS are focused on symptom control, maintaining quality of life and improving survival.

March 2011
S. Halachmi, B. Moskovitz, R. Farfara and O. Nativ

Background: One of the major concerns in performing nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the risk of tumor recurrence.

Objectives: To assess the rate, predictors and mechanisms of oncological failure in patients after NSS[1] for renal cancer.

Methods: Between 1993 and 2008 NSS was performed in 229 patients via flank incision. Only patients without metastases at diagnosis and minimal 12 months follow-up were included in the outcome analysis.

Results: During a mean follow-up of 45 ± 34 months (range 6–168 months) tumor recurrence was observed in 13 patients (5.6%). Mean follow-up time for detection of oncological failure was 51 months (range 6–132 months).  All patients with oncological failure were males, with a mean age of 61 years (median 58, range 51–74 years). The average size of the enucleated lesion was 5 cm (range 4–7 cm). Intraoperative frozen sections as well as postoperative final pathological examination of the surgical margins were negative in all recurrent cases. Mechanisms of recurrence were distant metastases (n=4), surgical scar implantation (n=2), perirenal fat recurrence (n=2), local renal recurrence at the surgical site (n=1), and new renal lesions (n=4). Predictors of oncological failure included warm ischemia time (P = 0.058), tumor size (P = 0.001), tumor location (central versus peripheral) (P = 0.015), and multifocality (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Distant dissemination, seeding during surgery, residual disease and new growth are the mechanisms responsible for cancer relapse. Large central lesions, long warm ischemia time and multifocality were significant predictors of oncological failure.






[1] NSS = nephron-sparing surgery



 
March 2006
H. Schayek, M. Krupsky, P. Yaron, A. Yellin, D.A. Simansky and E. Friedman

Background: The contribution of the abnormal DNA mismatch repair system to non-small cell lung cancer tumorigenesis is controversial and has not been reported in Jewish Israeli patients. Similarly, the involvement of 3p deletions in NSCLC[1] in the same population has not been assessed.

Objectives: To assess the contribution of the DNA-MMR[2] system to NSCLC pathogenesis by analyzing microsatellite instability, and evaluate loss of heterozygosity at 3p rates in Israeli NSCLC patients.

Methods: Paired DNA from tumorous and non-tumorous tissue was extracted, and genotyping for MSI[3] determination was carried out using the five Bethesda markers and for determining LOH[4] two 3p markers were used. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction amplification and size separation on an ABI semiautomatic DNA sequencer, and the allelic patterns of tumorous and non-tumorous tissue were compared.

Results: Forty-four NSCLCs from 35 smokers and 9 non-smokers were analyzed, with 26 of the 44 (59%) at stage I disease. Using five microsatellite markers (D17S250, D5S346, D2S123, BAT-25, BAT-26) (known as Bethesda markers) for MSI determination, 6 of the 44 tumors (13.6%) exhibited MSI in at least one marker. Similarly, genotyping for LOH at chromosome 3p was performed using two markers (D3S4103, D3S1234) located at 3p14.2 l. With D3S4103, 33 of the 44 patients successfully analyzed were homozygous and therefore non-informative with respect to LOH. Using D3S1234, 33 of 36 patients (91.7%) were heterozygous, and 23 of these individuals' tumors (69.7%) displayed LOH. Unexpectedly, 4 of 33 tumors (12.1%) genotyped by D3S4103, and 16 of 36 tumors (44.5%) genotyped by D3S1234 showed a pattern of MSI, even though only one of these tumors showed a similar pattern when genotyped with the five consensus markers. Overall, 23 of 44 tumors (52.3%) demonstrated MSI on at least one marker, and 5 of these 23 tumors (21.7%) had MSI on two or more markers.

Conclusions: MSI using 3p markers and not the Bethesda markers occurs at a high rate and in early stages in Jewish NSCLC patients.






[1] NSCLC = non-small cell lung cancer

[2] DNA-MMR = DNA mismatch repair

[3] MSI = microsatellite instability

[4] LOH = loss of heterozygosity


February 2006
E. Averbukh and E. Banin

Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide.

January 2006
R. Soferman

Background: Sentinel lymph node mapping is the standard of care for patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. Recently, SLN[1] mapping was introduced to the field of gastric cancer.

Objectives: To evaluate SLN mapping in patients with gastric cancer.

Methods: In 43 patients with gastric cancer, open intraoperative subserosal dye injection in four opposing peritumoral points was used. Ten minutes following dye injection, stained LNs were located, marked and examined postoperatively from the surgical specimen.

Results: SLN mapping was performed in 43 with gastric cancer; 782 lymph nodes were harvested and evaluated. SLNs were stained in 34 of the patients (79.1%) with a mean of 2.85 SLNs per patient. The false negative rate was 20.9%, the positive predictive value 100%, the negative predictive value 78.6% and the sensitivity 86.9%.

Conclusions: SLN mapping in patients with gastric cancer is feasible and easy to perform. SLN mapping may mainly affect the extent of lymph node dissection, and to a lesser degree gastric resection. However, more data are needed.






[1] Sentinel lymph node


March 2001
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