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עמוד בית
Thu, 13.06.24

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November 2008
T. Leibson and M. Lifshitz

Organophosphate and carbamate are mainly used to kill insects, thereby protecting livestock, crops, homes and communities. Yet, these compounds also convey great danger. OP[1] and CRB[2] poisoning is an important clinical problem, often life-threatening, especially in the pediatric population in rural areas where reaching a physician or hospital on time is difficult. We present a summary of accumulated toxicological knowledge as well as clinical and laboratory experience from a medical center serving a relatively vast rural area and pediatric population. We stress the importance of knowing how to recognize the classic signs of OP and CRB poisoning and when it is appropriate to investigate for such poisoning even in the absence of those signs. Like any medical emergency, OP and CRB poisoning requires prompt resuscitation and use of antidotes. Atropine, oxygen and fluids are the mainstay of therapy. Oximes, which were found useful in some cases of OP poisoning and useless in some cases of CRB poisoning, are absolutely safe as empiric treatment, which is often needed since the major differential diagnosis of OP poisoning is CRB poisoning that is clinically indistinguishable. We hope that continuing research will offer further insights into the management of such events, and we are confident that improved medical management of OP and CRB poisoning will result in a reduction of morbidity and other complications associated with intensive care procedures and hospitalization. 






[1] OP = organophosphonate

[2] CRB = carbamate


September 2002
Matitiahu Lifshitz, MD and Vladimir Gavrilov, MD
August 2000
Vladimir Gavrilov MD, Matitiahu Lifshitz MD, Jacob Levy MD and Rafael Gorodischer MD

Background: Many medications used for children have not undergone evaluation to assure acceptable standards for optimal dose, safety and efficacy. As a result, the majority of children admitted to hospital wards receive medications outside the terms of their license (off-label) or medications that are not specifically licensed for use in children (unlicensed). The extent of unlicensed and off-label medication use in ambulatory children is unknown.

Objective: To determine the extent of unlicensed and off-label medication use in a general pediatrics ambulatory hospital unit in Israel.

Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 132 outpatient children treated in the General Pediatrics Ambulatory Unit of the Soroka Medical Center, Beer Sheva, in November–December 1998.

Results: The children’s ages ranged from 1 month to 18 years (mean ± SD 50±58 months). Of the 222 prescriptions given to these children, one-third were unlicensed (8%) or unlabeled (26%). Different dose and age were the most common categories of off-label medication use. All 18 cases of unlicensed use were due to modifica-tion of licensed drugs (tablets were crushed to prepare suspensions). Altogether, 42% of children received medicines that were off-label and/or unlicensed.

Conclusions: More off-label than unlicensed medications were used. Further investigations are required to establish the extent of unproved drug use in both hospitalized and ambulatory pediatric patients in Israel. Recommendations recently issued by the Ministry of Health’s National Council for Child Health and Pediatrics constitute a first step in the Israeli contribution to the international effort demanding testing of medications for children.

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