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עמוד בית
Wed, 24.07.24

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May 2023
Ilan Merdler MD MHA, Haytham Katas MD, Ariel Banai MD, Keren-Lee Rozenfeld MD, Dana Lewit MD, Itamar Loewenstein MD, Gil Bornstein MD, Shmuel Banai MD, Yacov Shacham MD

Background: Among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, baseline neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) may reflect the severity of renal impairment. No data exists on serial changes in serum NGAL levels in CKD patients before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Objectives: To evaluate serial serum NGAL levels relation to contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) following PCI.

Methods: The study included 58 patients with CKD who underwent elective PCI. Plasma NGAL measurements were performed before (pre-NGAL) and 24 hours following (post-NGAL) PCI. Patients were followed for CI-AKI and changes in NGAL levels. Receiver operator characteristic identified the optimal sensitivity and specificity for pre-NGAL levels compared with post-NGAL for patients with CI-AKI.

Results: Overall CI-AKI incidence was 33%. Both pre-NGAL (172 vs. 119 ng/ml, P < 0.001) and post-NGAL (181 vs. 121 ng/ml, P < 0.001) levels were significantly higher in patients with CI-AKI, but no significant changes were detected. Pre-NGAL levels were similar to post-NGAL levels in predicting CI-AKI (area under the curve 0.753 vs. 0.745). Optimal cutoff value for pre-NGAL was 129 ng/ml (sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 72%, P < 0.001). Post-NGAL levels > 141 ng/ml were independently associated with CI-AKI (hazard ratio [HR] 4.86, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.34–17.64, P = 0.02) with a strong trend for post-NGAL levels > 129 ng/ml (HR 3.46, 95%CI 1.23–12.81, P = 0.06).

Conclusions: In high-risk patients, pre-NGAL levels may predict CI-AKI. Further studies on larger populations are needed to validate the use of NGAL measurements in CKD patients.

January 2023
Matityahou Ormianer MD, Benjamin Z. Koplewitz MD, Ron Eliashar MD, Menachem Gross MD, Jeffrey M. Weinberger MD, Nir Hirshoren MD

Background: Unilateral intratonsillar abscess (ITA) is an underreported, well-known complication of acute tonsillitis. The prevalence of unilateral ITA compared to peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is 1:14. However, bilateral ITA is an extremely rare entity, with only four cases reported thus far.

Objectives: To describe past cases and our experience, elaborating the diagnostic challenge and the surgical treatment for bilateral ITA.

Methods: We conducted a literature search in the PubMed database using the key words intra-tonsillar abscess, tonsillar abscess, bilateral tonsillar abscess, bilateral intra-tonsillar abscess and bilateral peritonsillar abscess. Our search was limited to the years 1980 to 2020.

Results: We found that only four cases of bilateral ITA were previously published. All were characterized by a delay in diagnosis with a median of 10 days (4–14 days), symmetrical oral cavity appearance, enlarged bilateral kissing tonsils, and subsequent treatment by surgical drainage/paracentesis. Respiratory compromise was a concern in most cases. Our patient was treated with bilateral quinsy tonsillectomy and had a prompt recovery.

Conclusions: Bilateral ITA is a rare, deceiving entity, with a diagnosis delay attributed to the symmetrical oral bulging. We present the fifth case reported and the first ever reported in a pediatric patient. We describe the assumed pathogenesis and the main characteristics among all five patients, emphasizing the important role of a high index of suspicion and appropriate imaging, guiding to proper diagnosis and treatment.

June 2022
Jeremy Lewis PhD FCSP

Dear unique individual:

Really very sorry to hear that you are living with shoulder pain. I’m writing this open letter to you to support decisions you will need to make about how best to manage your symptoms. Shoulder pain never comes at the right time, it always interferes with important work, sports, or social events, and like any pain, we want it gone the moment it starts. In this letter I present to you information that I hope may support you with decisions you will need to make about how best to find an answer for your symptoms. I would like to share with you information about shoulder pain and information about imaging investigations, injections, surgical, and nonsurgical management. I would also like to share with you important lifestyle factors that you need to be aware of, that may also help make sense of the symptoms you are experiencing. This letter focuses on the 90% of people who experience non-traumatic shoulder pain. This letter includes important questions you should ask when you see a clinician. Remember, it is you, not the health professional, who is the most important person in healthcare. No decision should be made without you being fully and truthfully informed of the anticipated benefits, timeframes, and commitments you will need to address and the possible harm of any intervention. I hope you find this letter helpful.

June 2018
Sagit Meshulam-Derazon MD, Tamir Shay MD, Sivan Lewis and Neta Adler MD

Background: One-stage direct-to-implant post-mastectomy breast reconstruction has been gaining popularity over the traditional two-stage/tissue-expander approach.

Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of the two post-mastectomy breast reconstruction procedures in terms of patient satisfaction.

Methods: Clinical data were collected by file review for patients who underwent mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction at two tertiary medical centers in 2010–2013. Patients were asked to complete the BREAST-Q instrument, sent to them by post with a self-addressed, stamped, return envelope. Scores were compared by type of reconstruction performed.

Results: Of the 92 patients who received the questionnaire, 59 responded: 39 had one-stage breast reconstruction and 20 underwent two-stage reconstruction. The two-stage reconstruction group was significantly older, had more background diseases, and were followed for a longer period. The one-stage reconstruction group had a higher proportion of BRCA mutation carriers. There was no significant between-group difference in postoperative complications. Mean BREAST-Q scores were similar in the two groups for all dimensions except satisfaction with information, which was higher in the patients after one-stage reconstruction. Women with more background diseases had better sexual well-being, and married women had better psychological well-being. Breast satisfaction was lower among patients treated with radiation and higher among patients with bilateral reconstruction; the latter subgroup also had higher physical well-being. Complications did not affect satisfaction.

Conclusions: Patients were equally satisfied with the outcome of one- and two-stage breast reconstruction. The choice of technique should be made on a case-by-case basis. Cost analyses are needed to construct a decision-making algorithm.

December 2016
D.J. Aframian, N. Keshet, B. Koplewitz and C. Nadler
May 2013
E. Glassberg, D. Neufeld, I. Shwartz, I. Haas, P. Shmulewsky, A. Benov and H. Paran
 Background: Laparoscopic repair of giant diaphragmatic hernias (GDH) can be challenging, especially when partial or complete volvulus of the herniated stomach is encountered.

Objectives: To review our experience with laparoscopic repair of GDH, emphasizing preoperative investigation, technical aspects, and outcome.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients operated on for GDH who were diagnosed when at least half the stomach was found in the mediastinum at surgery. Technical aspects and surgical outcomes were evaluated.

Results: Fifty patients underwent laparoscopic GDH repair during an 8 year period. Four patients admitted with acute symptomatic volvulus of the stomach were initially treated by endoscopic decompression followed by surgery during the same admission. Two cases were converted to open surgery. Initial surgery was successful in 45 patients; 3 had an immediate recurrence, 1 was reoperated for dysphagia during the same admission, and 1 had a mediastinal abscess. During long-term follow-up, six patients required reoperation for recurrent hernias. Another four patients had asymptomatic partial herniation of the stomach. The main reason for failure was incomplete reduction of the hernia sac, especially the posterior component. No correlation was found between the type of repair and surgical failure. Most patients who did not undergo an anti-reflux procedure had postoperative reflux unrelated to their preoperative workup.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic repair of GDH is challenging, but practical and safe. It should be the treatment of choice for this potentially life-threatening condition. Careful attention to pitfalls, such as the posterior element of the sac, and routine performance of an anti-reflux procedure are crucial.

 

February 2011
G. Altarescu, D. Rachmilewitz and S. Zevin

Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common and difficult-to-treat disease. In non-smokers the relative risk of developing UC[1] is 2.9 compared with smokers, who tend to have a later onset and a milder disease. Nicotine is the component of cigarette smoke responsible for the favorable effects in UC. Nicotine is metabolized by the enzyme CYP2A6. Subjects who are homozygotes for CYP2A6*4 gene polymorphism are poor nicotine metabolizers, while homozygotes for CYP2A6*1A polymorphism are extensive metabolizers.

Objectives: To compare the frequency of CYP2A6 and CHRNA3 polymorphisms among smokers and non-smokers with UC, and their effect on disease severity.

Methods: Data on the age at onset of disease, disease activity, and treatment were obtained from questionnaires completed by the 69 subjects in our study group. CYP2A6

*1A,*4A and CHRNA3 polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis.

Results: Nine percent of the patients were current smokers, 30% were former smokers and 61% non-smokers. Among smokers and former smokers 63% were homozygotes for CYP2A6*1A and 4% were homozygotes for CYP2A6*4A, whereas among non-smokers 66% were homozygotes for CYP2A6*4A (P < 0.0001). There was no significant effect of CYP2A6 or CHRNA3 genotype on UC activity.

Conclusions: We found a very high proportion of poor nicotine metabolizers among non-smoking patients with UC and a very low proportion among current and former smokers, making it difficult to determine the effect of poor metabolizer genotype on disease activity in smokers with UC. However, it may be possible to identify UC patients who are poor metabolizers of nicotine and who may benefit from nicotine or nicotine-like pharmacological treatment.






[1] UC = ulcerative colitis



 
December 2010
M. Warman, MD; J. Katz and E. Bimstein; I. Yaniv, MD, Lewy, PhD, G. Avrahami, MD, M. Jeison, PhD, B. Stark, MD and Z. Laron, MD.
May 2010
H. Rosenblum, Y. Bar-Dayan, Z. Dovrish, S. Lew, N. Weisenberg, A. Neumann, T. Klein and H. Amital

Background: Obstruction of urine outflow can result from mechanical blockade as well as from functional defects. In adults, urinary tract obstruction is due mainly to acquired defects, such as pelvic tumors, calculi, and urethral stricture. In childhood it is mostly due to congenital malformations. In this article we present two rare cases of acute obstructive renal failure that presented with hydronephrosis. These cases underline the wide range of causes that may lead to this clinical feature. 

March 2010
O. Amir, O. Rogowski, M. David, N. Lahat, R. Wolff and B.S. Lewis

Background: Interleukin-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and consequently is considered by many to have a protective role in heart failure, as opposed to the notorious tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

Objectives: To test the hypothesis of the possible beneficial impact of IL-10[1] on mortality in systolic heart failure patients in relation to their circulating TNFα[2] levels.

Methods: We measured circulating levels of IL-10 and TNFα in 67 ambulatory systolic heart failure patients (age 65 ± 13 years).

Results: Mortality was or tended to be higher in patients with higher levels (above median level) of circulating TNFα (9/23, 39% vs. 6/44, 14%; P = 0.02) or IL-10 (10/34, 30% vs. 5/33, 15%; P = 0.10). However, mortality was highest in the subset of patients with elevation of both markers above median (7/16, 44% vs. 8/51, 16%; P = 0.019). Elevation of both markers was associated with more than a threefold hazard ratio for mortality (HR[3] 3.67, 95% confidence interval 1.14–11.78).

Conclusions: Elevated circulating IL-10 levels in systolic heart failure patients do not have a protective counterbalance effect on mortality. Moreover, patients with elevated IL-10 and TNFα had significantly higher mortality, suggesting that the possible interaction in the complex inflammatory and anti-inflammatory network may need further study.

 






[1] IL = interleukin

[2] TNFα = tumor necrosis factor-alpha

[3] HR = hazard ratio


December 2009
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