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עמוד בית
Fri, 19.04.24

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November 2021
Yaniv Faingelernt MD, Eugene Leibovitz MD, Baruch Yerushalmi MD, Eytan Damari MD, Eyal Kristal MD, Raouf Nassar MD, and Dana Danino MD
March 2021
Gideon Eshel, Gerhard Baader, and Eran Kozer

Background: In April 1937 it was forbidden for German Jewish students to sit for examinations. However, a few Jewish medical students were able to continue studying at Berlin University. The order to expel all Jewish students from German Universities was published on the morning after Kristallnacht (November 1938) and was strictly imposed.

Objectives: To identity the last Jewish medical students who managed, in spite of the severe restrictions, to continue their study and apply for the examinations in Berlin from summer 1937 through 1938.

Methods: Reviews of the dissertations written in the medical faculty of Berlin during 1937–1938 identified the Jewish students. We presented their demographic and academic characteristics.

Results: Sixteen Jewish students were identified: six Germans, six Americans, and four Eastern Europeans. Their average age was 18.7 ± 1.0 years, 22.5 ± 2.0 years, and 20.8 ± 2.5 years, respectively. The last Jewish student took the exams in July 1938 and submitted a thesis one month later. One German student was half Jewish. Five gained the rights to take the examinations as foreign students by renouncing their German citizenship. They were the main group affected by the government’s restrictions. The American and the Eastern European students were more protected by law.

Conclusions: Each of those groups had different academic careers. The Americans were the last Jewish students allowed to study in Germany. It seems that they were less aware of the national socialist atmosphere in the medical faculty in Berlin during 1937–1938.

May 2011
G.M. Weisz

This medical history essay claims a medical fraud committed by the authorities, and used as a pretext for the November 1938 anti-Jewish Kristallnacht pogrom throughout the Third Reich. The suggested conspiracy covered up the real cause of death of the German Embassy's secretary in Paris. Baron Ernst vom Rath had been shot by a Jewish teenager who was frantic because of the plight of his family. A surgical analysis of the victim's injuries, and of the medical attention he received, suggests the likelihood of medical malpractice which led to his preventable demise.
 

August 2009
L. Shema, L. Ore, R. Geron and B. Kristal

Background: Radiological procedures utilizing intravascular contrast media are being widely applied for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This has resulted in increasing incidence of procedure-related contrast-induced nephropathy. In Israel, data on the incidence of CIN[1] and its consequences are lacking.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of CIN among hospitalized patients in the Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya (northern Israel), and to explore the impact of CIN on mortality and length of stay.

Methods: The study group was a historical cohort of 1111 patients hospitalized during the year 2006 who underwent contrast procedure and whose serum creatinine level was measured before and after the procedure. Data were electronically extracted from different computerized medical databases and merged into a uniform platform using visual basic application.

Results: The occurrence of CIN among hospitalized patients was 4.6%. Different CIN rates were noticed among various high risk subgroups such as patients with renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus (14.1%–44%). Average in-hospital length of stay was almost twice as long among patients with CIN compared to subjects without this condition. Furthermore, the in-hospital death rate among CIN patients was 10 times higher. A direct association was observed between severity of CIN based on the RIFLE classification and risk of mortality.

Conclusions: Low CIN occurrence was demonstrated in the general hospitalized patients (4.6%), and high rates (44%) in selected high risk subgroups of patients (with renal insufficiency or diabetes mellitus). Furthermore, prolonged length of stay and high in-hospital mortality were directly related to CIN severity.






[1] CIN = contrast-induced nephropathy



 
May 2009
L. Shema, L. Ore, R. Geron and B. Kristal

Background: Acute kidney injury remains a common significant clinical problem. Yet there are scant data in Israel on the incidence of hospital-acquired AKI[1] and on diagnosis validity.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of AKI among hospitalized patients in the Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya, compare discharge summaries to laboratory diagnosis, and investigate the impact of AKI on mortality and length of stay.

Methods: Computerized medical and laboratory data of 34,802 hospitalized subjects were collected. AKI was diagnosed according to three different definitions. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of AKI based on ICD-9 diagnosis compared to patient's laboratory data as the gold standard.

Results: The overall AKI annual incidence rate was 1–5.1%, depending on the AKI definition used. The incidence of AKI based on ICD-9 diagnosis was significantly lower compared to the laboratory-based diagnosis. Average in-hospital length of stay was 2.4 times longer among patients with AKI compared to subjects without this condition. Furthermore, the in-hospital death rate among AKI patients was 14 times higher than among non-AKI hospitalized subjects, with a positive association between AKI severity and risk of death.

Conclusions: Using AKI laboratory diagnosis as the gold standard revealed ICD-9 diagnosis to be 9.1% sensitive and 99.4% specific. Hospital-acquired AKI is a major contributor to prolonged length of stay and high mortality rates; therefore, interventions to reduce in-hospital disease incidence are required.






[1] AKI = acute kidney injury


April 2008
B. Kristal, R. Shurtz-Swirski, O. Tanhilevski, G. Shapiro, G. Shkolnik, J. Chezar, T. Snitkovsky, M. Cohen-Mazor and S. Sela

Background: Polymorphonuclear leukocyte priming and low grade inflammation are related to severity of kidney disease. Erythropoietin-receptor is present on PMNLs[1].

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of 20 weeks of EPO[2]-alpha treatment on PMNL characteristics in relation to the rate of kidney function deterioration in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Methods: Forty anemic chronic kidney disease patients, stage 4-5, were assigned to EPO and non-EPO treatment for 20 weeks. A group of 20 healthy controls was also studied. PMNL priming and PMNL-derived low grade inflammation were estimated, in vivo and ex vivo, before and after EPO treatment: The rate of superoxide release, white blood cells and PMNL counts, serum alkaline phosphatase and PMNL viability were measured. EPO-receptor on PMNLs was assayed by flow cytometry. The effect of 20 weeks of EPO treatment on kidney function was related to the estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Results: EPO treatment attenuated superoxide release ex vivo and in vivo and promoted PMNL survival ex vivo. Decreased low grade inflammation was reflected by reduced WBC[3] and PMNL counts and ALP[4] activity following treatment. EPO retarded the deterioration in GFR[5]. The percent of PMNLs expressing EPO-R[6] was higher before EPO treatment and correlated positively with the rate of superoxide release. After 20 weeks of EPO treatment the percent of PMNLs expressing EPO-R was down-regulated.

Conclusions: These non-erythropoietic properties of EPO are mediated by EPO-R on PMNLs, not related to the anemia correction. A new renal protection effect of EPO via attenuation of PMNL priming that decreases systemic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress is suggested.






[1] PMNL = polymorphonuclear leukocytes

[2] EPO = erythropoietin

[3] WBC = white blood cells

[4] ALP = alkaline phosphatase

[5] GFR = glomerular filtration rate

[6] EPO = EPO-receptor


November 2002
Shifra Sela, PhD, Revital Shurtz-Swirski, PhD, Jamal Awad, MD, Galina Shapiro, MSc, Lubna Nasser, MSc, Shaul M. Shasha, MD and Batya Kristal, MD

Background: Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for the development of endothelial dysfunction and the progression of atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress and inflammation have recently been implicated in endothelial dysfunction.

Objectives: To assess the concomitant contribution of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to systemic oxidative stress and inflammation in cigarette smokers.

Methods: The study group comprised 41 chronic cigarette-smoking, otherwise healthy males aged 45.0 ± 11.5 (range 31–67 years) and 41 male non-smokers aged 42.6 ± 11.3 (range 31–65) who served as the control group. The potential generation of oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the rate of superoxide release from separated, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated PMNL[1] and by plasma levels of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione. Inflammation was estimated indirectly by: a) determining the in vitro survival of PMNL, reflecting cell necrosis; b) in vivo peripheral PMNL counts, reflecting cell recruitment; and c) plasma alkaline phosphatase levels, indicating PMNL activation and degranulation.

Results: PMA[2]-stimulated PMNL from cigarette smokers released superoxide at a faster rate than PMNL from the controls. Smokers had decreased plasma GSH[3] and elevated GSSG[4] levels. In vitro incubation of control and smokers' PMNL in sera of smokers caused necrosis, while control sera improved smoker PMNL survival. Smokers' PMNL counts, although in the normal range, were significantly higher than those of controls. Plasma ALP[5] levels in smokers were significantly higher than in controls and correlated positively with superoxide release and PMNL counts.

Conclusions: Our study shows that PMNL in smokers are primed in vivo, contributing concomitantly to systemic oxidative stress and inflammation that predispose smokers to endothelial dysfunction, and explains in part the accelerated atherosclerosis found in smokers.

_______________________________________

[1] PMNL = polymorphonuclear leukocytes

[2] PMA = phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

[3] GSH = reduced glutathione

[4] GSSG = oxidized glutathione

[5] ALP = alkaline phosphatase

September 2000
Paul Froom, MD, Estela Kristal-Boneh, PhD, Samuel Melamed, PhD, Gil Harari, MSc, Jochanan Benbassat, MD and Joseph Ribak, MD, MPH

Background: The degree to which serum total cholesterol predicts cariovascular disease is uncertain. While most authors have placed TC among the most powerful risk indicators of CVD, some have claimed that it predicted CVD in women only, or even not at all.

Objective: To determine the predictive value of serum total cholesterol relative to diabetes, smoking, systolic blood pressure and body mass index (kg/m2), for cardiovascular disease mortality in 3,461 occupationally active Israeli males.

Methods: A prospective follow-up was carried out for the years 1987-1998 to determine the effect of age, smoking habits, a history of diabetes, SBP, BMI and TC, at entry, on CVD mortality.

Results: There were 84 CVD deaths during a total of 37,174 person-years follow up. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for CVD mortality with respect to variables at entry were: diabetes 5.2 (2.1-13.2), age 2.2 (1.7-2.9), smoking 1.3 (1.0-1.8), SBP 1.4 (1.1-2.0), TC 1.5 (1.0-2.1) and BMI 1.2 (0.7-2.2). Among non-obese, non-diabetic, normotensive subjects the hazard ratio of TC adjusted for age and smoking was 1.16 (1.09-1.22) per 10 mg/dl. In the remaining subjects it was 1.04 (0.98-1.12) only. There was a significant interaction between TC and diabetes, hypertension or obesity (P=0.003).

Conclusions: In this population of Israeli males we found an interaction between TC and other risk indicators for CVD. Confirmation is required for the unexpected finding that the predictive value of TC for CVD mortality among non-diabetic, non-obese and normotensive subjects exceeded that among subjects with either of these risk factors.
 

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