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עמוד בית
Sun, 26.05.24

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July 2008
D. Dicker, Y. Belnic, R. Goldsmith, D. Nitzan Kaluski

Background: It has been suggested that increased calcium intake plays a role in preventing obesity and promoting weight loss.

Objectives: To assess the association between calcium intake, body mass index and waist circumference in Israel.

Methods: MABAT is a cross-sectional survey based on a random sample of 3246 Israelis aged 25 to 64. Of the 3246 survey participants, height and weight measurements were recorded for 2782 (1371 men and 1411 women). These were divided into three groups according to their BMI[1] (group A ≤ 24.9, group B 25–29.9, and group C ≥ 30) and given a 24 hour food consumption recall questionnaire. Waist circumference was measured in 2601 participants (1760 men and 841 women) and was considered to be excessive if ≥102 cm for men or 88 cm for women.

Results: The mean calcium intake was 511.5 ± 301.8 mg for group A, 499.4 ± 283.7 mg for group B, and 464.7 ± 280.1 mg for group C (group A significantly differed from group C, P < 0.002). The mean daily milk consumption in group A was higher than in groups B and C (103.4 ± 147.5, 85.7 ± 122.25, and 84.5 ± 135.1 g, respectively; P < 0.01). There was no correlation between daily dietary calcium intake and waist circumference for men but women with a waist circumference below 88 cm consumed significantly more dietary calcium than those with a waist circumference ≥ 88 cm (P < 0.03).

Conclusions: The study confirms the inverse relationship between daily dietary calcium intake and obesity. This linkage relates to the intake of milk, but not to other dairy products.






[1] BMI = body mass index


February 2008
I. Kimiagar, C. Klein, J.M. Rabey, A. Peer, E. Kaluski, M. Zaretsky

Background: Carotid artery stenting is used as an alternative to surgical endarterectomy.

Objectives: To determine the outcome of CAS[1] in a retrospective cohort of patients.

Methods: Between July 1999 and March 2003, 56 consecutive patients with carotid artery stenosis who were considered ineligible for surgery were treated (45 male, 11 female, mean age 69). All cases were performed prior to the introduction of distal protective devices in Israel.

Results: Intraprocedural complications included transient neurological findings in 5 patients (8%), cerebrovascular accident in 2 (3%), hemodynamic changes in 11 (18%), and 4 procedural failures. Post-procedural complications included transient ischemic attack in 3 patients and cardiovascular accident in 6 (10%). At 30 days follow-up, three patients (5%) remained with signs of CVA[2]. Two patients (3%) died during the post-procedural period and 16 (28%) during the 5 year follow-up, one due to recurrent CVA and the remainder to non-neurological causes. Five-year carotid Doppler follow-up was performed in 25 patients (45%), which revealed normal stent flow in 21 (84%), 50–60% restenosis in 3 patients (12%) and > 70% restenosis in one patient (4%).

Conclusions: This study confirms that stent procedures are beneficial for symptomatic carotid stenosis in patients not eligible for surgery.






[1] CAS = carotid artery stenting

[2] CVA = cardiovascular accident


April 2007
N. Uriel,G. Moravsky, A. Blatt, A. Tourovski, Z. Gabara, I. Yofik, V. Danicek, A. Hendler, R. Braunstein, R. Krakover, Z. Vered and E. Kaluski

Background: Spontaneous coronary reperfusion occurs in 7–27% of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction, and is an independent predictor of myocardial salvage, percutaneous coronary intervention success, and improved outcome.

Objectives: To determine the optimal PCI[1] time for patients admitted to the hospital due to STEMI[2] with SCR[3].

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients admitted to the coronary care unit between July 2002 and November 2004 with a diagnosis of STEMI with SCR.

Results: The study group comprised 86 patients. There was not a single reinfarction episode during an observation period of 6579 patient hours. Cardiac catheterization was executed early (< 24 hours from pain onset) in 26 patients and late (> 24 hours) in 55. Pre-PCI angiographic TIMI flow 2–3 was seen in > 95% in both groups. PCI was performed more frequently in the “early” group (P = 0.024), while multi-vessel coronary artery disease (P = 0.094) requiring coronary bypass surgery (P = 0.056) was observed more frequently in the “late catheterization” group. Myocardial infarction and angina pectoris at 30 days occurred more frequently in the early catheterization group (P = 0.039), however no difference in any major adverse cardiac events was detected during long-term follow-up (491 ± 245 days).

Conclusions: Reinfarction after STEMI with SCR is a rare event. Early PCI in patients with STEMI and SCR, even when executed with aggressive anti-platelet therapy, seems to result in an excess of early MACE, without any long-term advantage. Prospective randomized trials should determine the optimal PCI timing for these patients.








[1] PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention

[2] STEMI = ST elevation myocardial infarction

[3] SCR = spontaneous coronary reperfusion


M. Leitman, P. Lysyansky, J. Gurevich, MD, Z. Friedman, E. Sucher, S. Rosenblatt, E. Kaluski, R. Krakover, T. Fuchs and Z. Vered

Background: Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular function includes calculation of ejection fraction and regional wall motion analysis. Recently, speckle imaging was introduced for quantification of left ventricular function.

Objectives: To assess LVEF[1] by speckle imaging and compare it with Simpson’s method, and to assess the regional LV strain obtained by speckle imaging in relation to conventional echocardiographic scores.

Methods: Thirty consecutive patients, 28 with regional LV dysfunction, underwent standard echocardiographic evaluation. LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume and EF were calculated independently by speckle imaging and Simpson’s rule. The regional peak systolic strain presented by speckle imaging as a bull's-eye map was compared with the conventional visual estimate of echo score.

Results: Average EDV[2] obtained by speckle imaging and by Simpson’s method were 85.1 vs. 92.7 ml (P = 0.38), average ESV[3] was 49.4 vs. 48.8 ml (P = 0.94), calculated EF was 43.9 vs. 50.5% (P = 0.08). The correlation rate with Simpson’s rule was high: 0.92 for EDV, 0.96 for ESV, and 0.89 for EF. The peak systolic strain in two patients without wall motion abnormality was 17.3 ± 4.7; in normal segments of patients with regional dysfunction, peak systolic strain (13.4 ± 4.9) was significantly higher than in hypokinetic segments  (10.5 ± 4.5) (P < 0.000001). The strain in hypokinetic segments was significantly higher than in akinetic segments (6.2 ± 3.6) (P < 0.000001).

Conclusions: Speckle imaging can be successfully used for the assessment of LV volumes and EF. Bull's-eye strain map, created by speckle imaging, can achieve an accurate real-time segmental wall motion analysis.

 






[1] LV = left ventricular ejection fraction

[2] EDV = end-diastolic volume

[3] ESV = end-systolic volume


October 2006
E. Kaluski, Z. Gabara, N. Uriel, O. Milo, M. Leitman, J. Weisfogel, V. Danicek, Z. Vered and G. Cotter
 Background: External counter-pulsation is a safe and effective method of alleviating angina pectoris, but the mechanism of benefit is not understood.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of external counter-pulsation therapy in heart failure patients.

Methods: Fifteen symptomatic heart failure patients (subsequent to optimal medical and device therapy) underwent 35 hourly sessions of ECPT[1] over a 7 week period. Before and after each ECPT session we performed pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and brachial artery function studies, administered a quality of life questionnaire, and assessed exercise tolerance and functional class.

Results: Baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 28.1 ± 5.8%. ECPT was safe and well tolerated and resulted in a reduction in pro-BNP[2] levels (from 2245 ± 2149 pcg/ml to 1558 ± 1206 pcg/ml, P = 0.022). Exercise duration (Naughton protocol) improved (from 720 ± 389 to 893 ± 436 seconds, P = 0.0001), along with functional class (2.63 ± 0.6 vs. 1.93 ± 0.7, P = 0.023) and quality of life scores (54 ± 22 vs. 67 ± 23, P = 0.001). Nitroglycerine-mediated brachial vasodilatation increased (11.5 ± 7.3% vs. 15.6 ± 5.2%, P =0.049), as did brachial flow-mediated dilation (8.35 ± 6.0% vs. 11.37 ± 4.9%, P = 0.09).

Conclusions: ECPT is safe for symptomatic heart failure patients and is associated with functional and neurohormonal improvement. Larger long-term randomized studies with a control arm are needed to confirm these initial encouraging observations.


 





[1] ECPT = external counter-pulsation therapy

[2] BNP = B-type natriuretic peptide


September 2006
D. Nitzan Kaluski, E. Barak, Z. Kaufman, L. Valinsky, E. Marva, Z. Korenman, Z. Gorodnitzki, R. Yishai, D. Koltai, A. Leventhal, S. Levine, O. Havkin and M.S. Green

Contamination of food with streptococci could present with unusual outbreaks that may be difficult to recognize in the early stages. This is demonstrated in a large food-borne outbreak of streptococcal pharyngitis that occurred in 2003 in a factory in Israel. The outbreak was reported to the public health services on July 2 and an epidemiologic investigation was initiated. Cases and controls were interviewed and throat swabs taken. An estimated 212 cases occurred within the first 4 days, the peak occurring on the second day. There was a wave of secondary cases during an additional 11 days. The early signs were of a respiratory illness including sore throat, weakness and fever, with high absenteeism rates suggesting a respiratory illness. As part of a case-control study, cases and controls were interviewed and throat swabs taken. Illness was significantly associated with consumption of egg-mayonnaise salad (odds ratio 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.4–12.6), suggesting an incubation period of 12–96 hours. The initial respiratory signs of food-borne streptococcal pharyngitis outbreaks could delay the identification of the vehicle of transmission. This could be particularly problematic in the event of deliberate contamination.

September 2005
E. Kaluski, N. Uriel, O. Milo and G. Cotter
 Although 40 years have passed since the advent of advanced cardiac life support, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest still carries an ultimate failure rate of 95%. This review reinforces the importance of public education, optimization of the local chain of survival, early bystander access and bystander basic life support, and early defibrillation. It emphasizes the role of simplified basic life support algorithms and demonstrates the low incremental benefit of complex skillful protocols employed in ACLS[1]. The impact of automatic external defibrillators and new medications incorporated into ACLS algorithms is evaluated in the light of contemporary research. The persistent, discouraging, low functional survival rate (less than 5% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims) mandates reassessment of current strategies and guidelines.

_________________

[1] ACLS = advanced cardiac life support

 
June 2005
R. Krakover, A. Blatt, A. Hendler, I. Zisman, M. Reicher, J. Gurevich, E. Peleg, Z. Vered and E. Kaluski
 Background: Coronary sinus is a venous conduit with dynamic and unclear function with regard to coronary circulation.  

Objectives: To describe the dynamic changes of the coronary sinus during the cardiac cycle.

Methods: The angiographic feature of the coronary sinus was evaluated in 30 patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic coronary angiography.

Results: Prolonged angiographic imaging following coronary injections permitted accurate demonstration of the coronary sinus in all 30 patients. We report, for the first time, that the coronary sinus can be divided into two angiographic functional/anatomic portions, upper and lower. The lower part is prone to a highly dynamic contraction/relaxation pattern, observed in 12 of the 30 patients, while 10 patients had normal and 8 had low contractile pattern on angiography. Clinical assessment of these patients did not identify an association with this motion pattern.

Conclusions: The coronary sinus is an important anatomic/functional structure that should be further investigated in patients with various forms of heart disease.

April 2005
L. Keinan-Boker, N. Noyman, A. Chinich, M.S. Green and D. Nitzan-Kaluski
Background: The prevalence of obesity has increased considerably in many countries in recent decades.

Objective: To describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Israeli population, based on findings of the first national health and nutrition survey (MABAT).

Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out during 1999–2000. MABAT is based on a representative sample (n=3,246) of the general Israeli population aged 25–64 years. The current study population comprised those with complete data on measured weight and height (n=2,781). Participants were interviewed in person and had their weight and height measured by the interviewer.

Results: Over 50% of the study participants were women (n=1,410); 76% were Jews and 24% Arabs. Most participants had an education of at least 12 years (72%). Body mass index ≥30.0 was more prevalent in women compared to men (P < 0.001) in both population groups (Jews and Arabs). Obesity rates increased with age and reached 22.4% for men and 40.4% for women aged 55–64 years. Lower education was associated with higher obesity rates, with lowest rates observed for Jewish women with an academic education (13.6%) and highest rates observed for Arab women with a basic education (57.3%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed age to be a significant risk factor in men. Age, education and origin (Arab, and the former Soviet Union for Jews) were significant risk factors for obesity in women.

Conclusions: Obesity rates in Israel are high and comparable to those in the United States. Of special concern is the subgroup of older Arab women (55–64 years), whose obesity rates reached 70%.

November 2004
M. Leitman, V. Shir, E. Peleg, S. Rosenblatt, E. Sucher, R. Krakover, E. Kaluski and Z. Vered

Background: Cardiac rupture is a rare but ominous complication of myocardial infarction.

Objectives: To study the clinical presentation, medical course, outcome and echocardiographic predictors of patients with myocardial rupture.

Methods: We evaluated 15 consecutive patients with cardiac rupture during a 4 year period in our department. The current report explores the presence of potential risk factors, timing, relation to the thrombolysis, coronary interventions and outcome.

Results: The index event in all patients was first ST elevation myocardial infarction. In seven patients rupture occurred in the first 24 hours. Pericardial effusion on admission with a clot was present in three patients. Five patients received thrombolytic therapy. Only three patients underwent coronary angioplasty, but in one case it was performed late and in two patients the culprit artery could not be opened. Six patients reached the operating room, of whom three survived.

Conclusions: The lack of early mechanical reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction and thrombolytic therapy are risk factors for cardiac rupture. Pericardial effusion on admission and evidence of a clot are echocardiographic indicators of cardiac rupture and should alert the medical team to further assess the possibility of cardiac rupture.
 

September 2003
D. Nitzan Kaluski and A. Leventhal

Only one case of a cow infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy has been reported in Israel. Its publication, in 2002, caused both public and professional concern. The inevitable health policy question raised was whether or not to recommend against consuming beef and what public health measures should be taken. In this article we describe the prion diseases among animals and humans, their interaction and the precautionary procedures that were carried out by the state Veterinary Services and the Ministry of Health since 1988. The BSE[1] case (a 10 year old dairy cow) is believed to be the result of local consumption of infected food with mammalian meat and bone meal more than a decade earlier. The risk assessment took into consideration that no cases of vCJD (a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease) have ever been diagnosed in Israel, as well as the low risk of contamination of the meat due to the religious method of slaughtering performed in the country. The policy decision was to implement a contingency plan prepared in advance. Israel was reclassified from the level II category of geographic risk where BSE is unlikely but not excluded in the herds, to level III, where BSE is likely but not confirmed, or confirmed at a lower level. No undue damage to the meat industry has occurred. By the end of 2002, despite the examination of more than 3,800 brains from slaughtered cows older than 3 years, no other cases of BSE have been detected.

 







[1] BSE = bovine spongiform encephalopathy


April 2003
D. Nizan Kaluski, T.H. Tulchinsky, A. Haviv, Y. Averbicj. S. Rachmiel, E.B. Berry and A. Leventhal

Micronutrient deficiencies have reoccupied the center stage of public health policy with the realization that folic acid deficiency results in neural tube defects and possibly other birth defects as well as ischemic heart disease. These, in turn, have raised an older debate on food fortification policy for the elimination of iodine, iron and vitamin D deficiencies. Data from the First Israeli National Health and Nutrition Survey (MABAT 2000) provided an impetus to develop an active national nutrition policy aimed to improve the nutritional status of iodine, iron, vitamins A and D and B-vitamins, including folate. In this paper we examine some of the MND[1] issues in Israel and their implications for public health, and suggest options for the formulation of policy.






[1] MND = micronutrient deficiency



 
December 2002
JoeÈ l Zlotogora MD PhD, Yona Amitai MD, Dorit Nitzan Kaluski MD MPH RD and Alex Leventhal MD MPH MPA

Background: Open neural tube defects are among the most common malformations of the fetus. Secondary prevention by early diagnosis during pregnancy and abortion of affected fetuses result in a marked reduction of NTD incidence at birth. The dramatic effect of folic acid for primary prevention of these defects led to recommendations for folic acid supplementation in women of reproductive age.

Objective: To describe the epidemiologic features of NTD in Israel in 1999±2000.

Methods: A national registry of NTD was begun in 1999. During the years 1999±2000, a non-syndromic NTD was diagnosed in at least 394 pregnancies (166 anencephaly, 166 spina bifida, 43 encephalo-cele, and 19 with other types of NTD). The religious-ethnic affiliation was known in 392 cases (209 Jews and 183 non-Jews).

Results: Despite a marked decline in the rate of NTD at birth in the last few decades, the total rates during pregnancy did not change significantly, demonstrating that the changes were secondary to termination of affected pregnancies. At birth, NTD were almost four times more frequent among non-Jews (3.6 per 10,000 live births for anencephaly and 5.9 for spina bifida) than among Jews (anencephaly 1/10,000 live births, spina bifida 1.4/10,000 live births). The complete data of the registry showed an approximately twofold difference in the overall rates during pregnancy between Jews (anencephaly 5.3, spina bifida 4.6, total 11/10,000 live births) and non-Jews (anencephaly 8.8, spina bifida 10.3, total 22.3/10,000 live births). The registry demon-strated that the significant differences in NTD incidence observed at birth between Jews and non-Jews are secondary to a combined effect of a higher frequency of the malformations among non-Jews and a lower proportion of termination of affected pregnancies among non-Jews.

Conclusions: The data presented here will serve as a basis for evaluating the impact of the Ministry of Health recommendations for folic acid supplementation on the incidence of NTD.
 

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