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עמוד בית
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February 2001
Max J. Schmulson, MD

Knowledge on the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome has evolved, beginning with disturbances in motility to visceral hypersensitivity, and ultimately to alterations in brain-gut bi­directional communication, where neurotransmitters such as serotonin play a key role. Recently, a multicomponent disease model that integrates all these alterations was proposed. This model is divided into physiological, cognitive, emotional and behavioral components that explain the gastrointestinal as well as the constitutional symptoms. In recent years there has been an explosion of research together with new developments in pharmacological treatments for lBS that support each compo­nent of this model. This review presents recent data in favor of these alterations in IBS.

August 2000
Robert Goldstein PhD, Dan Braverman MD and Halina Stankiewicz MSc

Background: Carbohydrate malabsorption of lactose, fructose and sorbitol has already been described in normal volunteers and in patients with functional bowel complaints including irritable bowel syndrome. Elimination of the offending sugar(s) should result in clinical improvement.

Objective: To examine the importance of carbohydrate malabsorption in outpatients previously diagnosed as having functional bowel disorders, and to estimate the degree of clinical improvement following dietary restriction of the malabsorbed sugar(s).

Methods: A cohort of 239 patients defined as functional bowel complaints was divided into a group of 94 patients who met the Rome criteria for irritable bowel syndrome and a second group of 145 patients who did not fulfill these criteria and were defined as functional complaints. Lactose (18 g), fructose (25 g) and a mixture of fructose (25 g) plus sorbitol (5 g) solutions were administered at weekly intervals. End-expiratory hydrogen and methane breath samples were collected at 30 minute intervals for 4 hours. Incomplete absorption was defined as an increment in breath hydrogen of at least 20 ppm, or its equivalent in methane of at least 5 ppm. All patients received a diet without the offending sugar(s) for one month.

Results: Only 7% of patients with IBS and 8% of patients with FC absorbed all three sugars normally. The frequency of isolated lactose malabsorption was 16% and 12% respectively. The association of lactose and fructose-sorbitol malabsorption occurred in 61% of both patient groups. The frequency of sugar malabsorption among patients in both groups was 78% for lactose malabsorption (IBS 82%, FC 75%), 44% for fructose malabsorption and 73% for fructose-sorbitol malabsorption (IBS 70%, FC 75%). A marked improvement occurred in 56% of IBS and 60% of FC patients following dietary restriction. The number of symptoms decreased significantly in both groups (P<0.01) and correlated with the improvement index (IBS P<0.05, FC P<0.025).

Conclusions: Combined sugar malabsorption patterns are common in functional bowel disorders and may contribute to symptomatology in most patients. Dietary restriction of the offending sugar(s) should be implemented before the institution of drug therapy.

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IBS = irritable bowel syndrome

FC = functional complaints

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