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עמוד בית
Wed, 29.05.24

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August 2023
George M. Weisz MD FRACS BA MA, Marina-Portia Anthony MBBS BSc (Med) MPH FRANZCR

A review of the literature on the effect of immune modulation on the skeleton shows disappointing results.

March 2021
George M. Weisz MD FRACS BA MA and Andrew Gal BSc (Med) MBBS FRCPA

Germany was a scientifically advanced country in the 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in medicine, with a major interest in research and the treatment of tuberculosis. From 1933 until 1945, Nazi Germany perverted scientific research through criminal experimentations on captured prisoners of war and on "subhumans" by scientifically untrained, but politically driven, staff. This article exposes a series of failed experiments on tuberculosis in adults, experiments without scientific validity. Nonetheless, Dr. Kurt Heißmeyer repeated the experiment on Jewish children, who were murdered for the sake of personal academic ambition. It is now 75 years since liberation and the murdered children must be remembered. This observational review raises questions of medical and ethical values

November 2020
Noa Sabag MD Alexander Yakobson MD and Eldad Silberstein MD

Malignant melanoma is one of the most extensively studied diseases in the last few decades. The outcome of these studies and the treatment changes that followed have dramatically altered the landscape of not only melanoma therapy, but all solid tumors. In this review we presented the recent advances of surgical and adjuvant management of patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma. This review focuses on stage III melanoma since this stage of disease requires surgical treatment as well as adjuvant therapy

March 2018
Shir Azrielant MD, Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP MACR and Yehuda Adler MD, MHA
September 2014
Menachem Rottem MD and Adham Egbarya BSc

Background: The efficacy of subcutaneous immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity has been demonstrated in several studies.

Objectives: To investigate the effectiveness and side effects of immunotherapy in Israel and the relationship between local and systemic side effects.

Methods: This retrospective study was based on patient records and a computerized database for drug dispensing over a 5 year period. Success was rated as partial or complete. Side effects were classified as local or systemic. Systemic side effects were further classified according to severity, as mild (cutaneous), moderate (respiratory symptoms), or severe (cardiovascular).

Results: Of the 135 patients on aero-allergen immunotherapy who reached maintenance, 120 (88.9%) exhibited complete or partial improvement and 15 (11.1%) did not improve. All of the 44 patients on hymenoptera immunotherapy reached effective maintenance doses. The mean percent side effects calculated per treatment (injection) were 2.49 for local and 1.58 for a systemic reaction during the build-up phase, and 1.13 and 1.12 during the maintenance phase, respectively. Rates of systemic reactions were 1.3% for cutaneous, 1.14% for respiratory and 0.97% for cardiovascular reactions during the build-up phase, and 1.11%, 0.53%, and 0.51% during the maintenance phase, respectively. The odds of systemic reactions were significantly higher in patients with local reactions both in the build-up phase (P = 0.03) and in the maintenance phase (P = 0.0003). The number of annual medications dispensed per patient decreased from 31.5 to 26.0 during the first year after reaching maintenance, and to 22.5 in the second year. Pharmaceutical costs were 67% lower 1 year after the start of the maintenance phase, compared to the year before the start of immunotherapy, and 63% lower in the second year (P = NS).

Conclusions: Immunotherapy was effective and safe. Recognizing the benefits and safety of immunotherapy is necessary for physicians and health authorities in order to provide better care for allergic patients.

January 2012
Pedro Ojeda, MD, MPH, Isabel Ojeda, MD, Gema Rubio, MD and Fernando Pineda, PhD.

Background: In the last decade the use of different types of oral immunotherapy for food-allergic patients has increased with generally satisfactory outcomes. Cow’s milk and hen’s egg, a common element in the daily diet, have received the main interest. Most of these immunotherapy regimens are performed in the hospital, causing inconvenience for both children and their parents.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of a home-based oral immunotherapy regimen with raw pasteurized egg.

Methods: The study group comprised children aged 6 years and older with allergy to hen’s egg proteins, proven by positive skin prick-tests (SPT) and/or specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and positive open oral food challenge (OOFC) with boiled or raw egg. Patients who met the inclusion criteria and signed the informed consent form underwent egg immunotherapy according to an established schedule.

Results: The treatment was given to 31 of the 36 recruited patients: 80.6% of the intention to treat population achieved complete tolerance to the maximum dose equivalent to one raw hen’s egg, 3.2% achieved incomplete tolerance, and 16.2% did not achieve an acceptable tolerance dose. Most of the latter patients had a positive baseline OOFC with low doses of boiled egg. The average number of reactions per treated patient was 5.8, most of them grades 1 and 2 there were no grade 4 reactions.

Conclusions: This home-based oral immunotherapy protocol proved to effectively induce tolerance to hen’s egg in most of the egg-allergic children and its safety profile was acceptable.

Silvia Sanchez-Garcia, MD, Pablo Rodriguez del Rio, MD, Carmelo Escudero, MD, Cristina Garcia-Fernandez, MD, Antonio Ramirez, MD and M.D. Ibanez, MD, PhD

Background: In the last two decades milk oral immunotherapy has gained interest as an effective treatment option for milk-allergic patients.

Objectives: To report on the efficacy of a milk oral immunotherapy.

Methods: Children with immunoglobulin E-mediated cow’s milk allergy were included in the protocol. The treatment consisted of an induction phase in which milk doses were increased weekly in the hospital, while the tolerated dose was continued daily at home. The goal was to achieve a minimum milk intake of 200 ml a day. During the maintenance phase, patients ingested at least 200 ml of milk in a single dose every day.

Results: The protocol was applied to 105 milk-allergic children diagnosed by specific IgE to milk and controlled oral food challenge. The mean duration of the induction phase was 19 weeks. Of the 105 subjects, 86 (81.9%) successfully complied with the protocol and 19 (19.1%) failed. Causes of failure were moderate/severe reactions in 12 patients (12.44%) and personal reasons in 7 (6.66%). A total of 182 adverse reactions occurred during the induction phase, most of them mild. Baseline specific IgE to milk and casein were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the successfully treated group compared to the group in which the treatment failed.

Conclusions: Milk oral immunotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for milk-allergic children, although adverse reactions may occur. Baseline milk and casein-specific IgE may be useful to predict a good response to milk oral immunotherapy.

______

[1] IgE = immunoglobulin E

Giuseppe Crisafulli, PhD, Lucia Caminiti, MD and Giovanni B. Pajno, MD
Intan H. Ismail, MD, MMed and Mimi L.K. Tang, MB, BS, PhD

Food allergies have increased significantly over recent decades, and are the most common cause of admissions for anaphylaxis in childhood, particularly in children under 5 years of age. Current management of food allergy is limited to strict food allergen avoidance together with education on the recognition and emergency management of allergic reactions, and in some cases provision of self-injectable adrenalin. Although this supportive management approach is generally effective, it is burdensome for patients and families, and in turn leads to reduced quality of life. Patients with food allergy would benefit greatly from a definitive treatment that could achieve long-term tolerance. Recent studies demonstrate that oral immunotherapy (OIT) can induce desensitization and modulate allergen-specific immune responses. However, it remains uncertain whether long-term tolerance can be achieved with current OIT regimens. Increased allergen dose, duration of OIT and/or inclusion of an immune modifying adjuvant may enhance the tolerogenic potential of OIT. Allergic reactions during OIT are common, although severe reactions are infrequent. Oral immunotherapy holds promise as a novel approach to the definitive treatment of food allergy.

December 2008
Y. Zeldin, Z. Weiler, E. Magen, L. Tiosano, M. I. Kidon

Background: Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy is effective in treating allergic airway disease. Disadvantages include immediate local and systemic adverse reactions and poor compliance.

Objectives: To obtain real-life efficacy and safety data through a prospective observational study of SIT[1] in the allergist's office.

Methods: We prospectively collected data from all patients with a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and/or asthma and a specific immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization to one or more aeroallergens who began SIT during the 2 year period 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2006. As part of the routine immunotherapy care patients were asked to complete a disease activity questionnaire before and yearly during the treatment. The primary outcome measure was the combined rhinitis and asthma symptoms scores. Data from patients completing at least 1 year of immunotherapy were analyzed.

Results: Altogether, 133 enrolled patients with a mean age of 22.7 years completed at least 1 year of SIT. The allergic rhinitis and asthma disease activity score decreased from a mean of 8.1 to 3.3 (rhinitis) and from 4.8 to 2.4 (asthma) on a 10 cm visual analogue scale after 1 year of SIT (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Rhinitis medication use in all patients and asthma medication use in asthmatics decreased significantly. Mild local adverse reactions were almost universal. There were 11 patients (8%) who developed 14 immediate systemic, mild to moderate reactions. All reactions were successfully treated in the clinic; none required additional observation or hospitalization.

Conclusions: In the hands of experienced allergists subcutaneous allergy immunotherapy is a safe and efficacious option for patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. 






[1] SIT = subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy


January 2008
S. Fuchs, T. Feferman, R. Meidler, T. Brenner, O. Laub and M.C. Souroujon

Backgraound: Intravenous immunoglobulin administration has been beneficially used for the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases including myasthenia gravis, although its mode of action and active components have not yet been fully identified.

Objectives: To isolate from IVIg[1] a disease-specific fraction involved in the therapeutic activity in myasthenia and to identify its properties and function.

Results: IVIg administration in experimental autoimmune MG[2] results in suppression of disease that is accompanied by decreased Th1 cell and B cell proliferation. Chromatography of IVIg on columns of IgG from rats with EAMG[3] or from MG patients resulted in depletion of the suppressive activity that IVIg has on rat EAMG. Moreover, the minute amounts of IgG fractions eluted from the EAMG or MG-specific columns retained the immunosuppressive activity of IVIg.

Conclusions: Our study supports the notion that the therapeutic effect of IVIg is mediated by a minor disease-specific immunoglobulin fraction that is present in IVIg and is essential for its therapeutic activity.





[1] IVIg = inravenous immunoglobulin

[2] MG = myasthenia gravis

[3] EAMG = experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis 


March 2006
M.I. Besser. A.J. Treves. O. Itzhaki, I. Hardan, A. Nagler, M.Z. Papa, R. Catane, E. Winkler, B. Shalmon-Sifroni and J. Schachter

Background: Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive and highly malignant cancer. The 5 year survival rate of patients with metastatic disease is less than 5% with a median survival of only 6–10 months. Drugs like dacarbazin (DTIC) as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapy agents have a response rate of 15–30%, but the duration of response is usually short with no impact on survival. Interleukin-2-based immunotherapy has shown more promising results. The National Institutes of Health recently reported that lymphodepleting chemotherapy, followed by an adoptive transfer of large numbers of anti-tumor specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, resulted in an objective regression in 51% of patients.

Objectives: To introduce the TIL[1] technology to advanced metastatic melanoma patients in Israel.

Methods: We generated TIL cultures from tumor tissue, choosing those with specific activity against melanoma and expanding them to large numbers.

Results: TIL cultures from nine patients were established and examined for their specific activity against the patients' autologous tumor cells. Twelve TIL cultures derived from 5 different patients showed the desired anti-tumor activity, making those 5 patients potential candidates for the therapy.

Conclusions: Pre-clinical studies of the TIL technology in a clinical laboratory set-up were performed successfully and this modality is ready for treating metastatic melanoma patients at the Sheba Medical Center's Ella Institute.






[1] TIL = tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes 


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