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עמוד בית
Fri, 30.09.22

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July 2020
Milena Tocut MD, Hanan Vaknine MD, Paulina Potachenko MD, Sorin Elias MD and Gisele Zandman-Goddard MD
January 2020
Ariel Greenberg MD, Revital Kariv MD, Irit Solar PhD and Dov Hershkovitz MD PhD

Background: Evaluation of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency is conducted via immunohistochemistry or by microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis. Heterogeneous immunohistochemistry staining for MMR proteins may show different patterns; however, according to current guidelines, all of those patterns should be interpreted as MMR proficient. This conclusion might lead to false negative results because although most cases of heterogeneity stem from technical factors and biological variability, other types of heterogeneity represent true MMR deficiency.

Objectives: To identify a unique heterogeneity pattern that is associated with true MMR loss.

Methods: We analyzed 145 cases of colorectal carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry staining for MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6 were performed. We defined geographic heterogeneity as areas of tumor nuclear staining adjacent to areas of loss of tumor nuclear staining with intact staining in the surrounding stroma. All cases were evaluated for the presence of geographic heterogeneity. In addition, 24 cases were also evaluated by MSI testing.

Results: Of the 145 cases, 24 (16.5%) were MMR deficient. Of the 24 cases for which MSI analysis was also available, 10 cases (41.7%) demonstrated biological heterogeneity, 5 (20.8%) demonstrated technical heterogeneity, and 2 (8.3%) demonstrated geographic heterogeneity. Only the two cases with geographic heterogeneity were MSI-high via MSI analysis. In addition, a germline mutation in MSH-6 was identified in one of these cases.

Conclusions: Geographic heterogeneity may raise a suspicion for a MMR-deficient case, which should be further analyzed using additional methodologies such as MSI analysis.

April 2014
Eyal Kramer MD, Oscar Herman MD, Jacob Frand MD, Lior Leibou MD, Letizia Schreiber MD and Hananya Vaknine MD
 Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy in humans. Several factors have been associated with the biological behavior of these tumors, including histopathologic type, depth of tumor invasion, perineural invasion, and the expression of several biologic markers including Ki67, a proliferative marker. Previous studies assessing the relationship between the proliferative fraction, as expressed by Ki67, and the histologic variants of BCC as well as its association with the tendency to recur, failed to illustrate significant statistical correlation.

Objectives: To examine the proliferative index, as expressed by Ki67, in various subtypes of basal cell carcinoma, and to assess its relationship to various histological and clinical variables.

Methods: In this retrospective study 51 lesions of BCC were examined. In each case, the following data were gathered: demographic (age and gender), anatomic location, size of the lesion, and clinical follow-up.  Each case was stained immunohistochemically with anti-Ki67 antigen (MIB-1), and the proliferative index was determined. Histologic analysis was performed for the following data: presence of an ulcer, intensity of inflammatory infiltrate, histologic subtype, mitotic count, and the presence of perineural invasion.

Results: Basal cell carcinoma exhibited a wide variation of proliferative indices, ranging from 1% to 61%. A significant statistical correlation was observed between the proliferative index and the mitotic activity, tumor ulceration and brisk tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

Conclusions: The wide variation in the degree of proliferation (from almost no activity to highly proliferative tumors) suggests that basal cell carcinoma exhibits a wide spectrum of biological characteristics. Ulcerated lesions were characterized by high proliferative index. No true correlation was demonstrated between the proliferative index and the aggressive histologic subtypes, implying that other factors were more biologically significant. The degree of proliferation also showed significant statistical correlation with the degree of tumor infiltration by lymphocytes. The significance of this proliferation-associated increased immunogenicity needs to be further studied.

August 2011
J. Weidenfeld, B. Bar Zakai, R. Faermann, I. Barshack and S. Aviel-Ronen
June 2010
A. Yosepovich, C. Avivi, J. Bar, S. Polak-Charcon, C. Mardoukh and I. Barshack

Background: HER2 is an important prognostic and predictive marker in invasive breast cancer. It is currently assessed by immunohistochemistry for protein over-expression and by fluorescence in situ hybridization for gene amplification. The immunohistochemistry-equivocal cases (2+) are currently retested by FISH[1] to determine eligibility for trastuzumab treatment. Retesting by FISH significantly raises the cost of patient management and sometimes delays treatment. The 4B5 is a new, FDA-approved, rabbit monoclonal antibody for HER2 testing.

Objectives: To examine the reliability of 4B5 IHC[2] HER2 testing in cases found to be HER2 status equivocal by CB11 IHC.

Methods: Twenty-eight invasive breast cancer cases, with an equivocal HER2 status by CB11 IHC, were retested by the 4B5 antibody as well as by FISH analysis. The scoring was performed using the same guidelines as HercepTest and was correlated with the FISH ratio. Results: Of the original 28 CB11 clone designated equivocal cases, 14 (50%) showed negative HER2 staining using the 4B5 clone (HercepTest score 0 and 1+). Five cases (18%) proved to be positive (HercepTest score 3+) and 9 cases (32%) remained equivocal (HercepTest score 2+). The corresponding FISH ratio results showed that all 4B5 negative cases were negative by FISH testing, with a negative predictive value of 100% 4 of 5 of the 4B5-positive cases were positive by FISH testing, with a positive predictive value of 80%. One 4B5-positive case was borderline-high (2.2 ratio) by FISH. The correlation between 4B5 IHC and FISH was statistically significant (P = 0.0013) by chi-square test.

Conclusions: Sequential testing by 4B5 IHC could greatly reduce the need for FISH testing in cases considered HER2 equivocal by CB11 IHC.

 

 
[1] FISH = fluorescence in situ hybridization

[2] IHC = immunohistochemistry

July 2008
October 2004
August 2001
Dan Bar-Zohar, MD, Yoram Kluger and Moshe Michowitz, MD, MSc,
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