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עמוד בית
Wed, 12.06.24

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February 2012
N. Moustafa-Hawash, T. Smolkin, A. Ilivitzki, A. Zimberg-Bossira, A. Gildish, R. Gershoni-Baruch and I.R. Makhoul
December 2011
T. Smolkin, I. Ulanovsky, S. Blazer and I.R. Makhoul
January 2009
I.R. Makhoul, H. Sprecher, R. Sawaid, P. Jakobi, T. Smolkin, P. Sujov, I. Kassis and S. Blazer

Background: According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control guidelines, prolonged rupture of membranes mandates intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus whenever maternal GBS[1] status is unknown.

Objectives: To evaluate the local incidence, early detection and outcome of early-onset GBS sepsis in 35–42 week old neonates born after PROM[2] to women with unknown GBS status who were not given intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis.

Methods: During a 1 year period, we studied all neonates born beyond 35 weeks gestation with maternal PROM ≥ 18 hours, unknown maternal GBS status and without prior administration of IAP[3]. Complete blood count, C-reactive protein, blood culture and polymerase chain reaction amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA gene were performed in blood samples collected immediately after birth. Unfavorable outcome was defined by one or more of the following: GBS bacteremia, clinical signs of sepsis, or positive PCR[4].

Results:  Of the 3616 liveborns 212 (5.9%) met the inclusion criteria. Only 12 (5.7%) of these neonates presented signs suggestive of sepsis. PCR was negative in all cases. Fifty-eight neonates (27.4%) had CRP[5] > 1.0 mg/dl and/or complete blood count abnormalities, but these were not significantly associated with unfavorable outcome. Early-onset GBS sepsis occurred in one neonate in this high risk group (1/212 = 0.47%, 95% CI 0.012–2.6). 

Conclusions: In this single-institution study, the incidence of early-onset GBS sepsis in neonates born after PROM of ≥ 18 hours, unknown maternal GBS status and no intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis was 0.47%.

 






[1] GBS = Group B Streptococcus



[2] PROM = prolonged rupture of membranes



[3] IAP = intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis



[4] PCR = polymerase chain reaction



[5] CRP = C-reactive protein



 
July 2003
I.R. Makhoul, D. Goldsher, M. Okopnik and M. Bronshtein
April 2003
O. Nevo, E. Avisar, A. Tamir, M.S. Coffler, P. Sumov and I.R. Makhoul

Background: Multifetal pregnancy reduction has been implemented for improving the outcome of multifetal pregnancies. Recent studies reported no difference in pregnancy outcome between reduced twins and non-reduced twins, but the neonatal course and subsequent outcome in reduced twin pregnancies were not well documented.

Objective: To compare the neonatal course and outcome, as well as the gestational and labor characteristics, in twins from reduced multifetal pregnancies and in non-reduced twins.

Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study of the neonatal course of twins from reduced multifetal pregnancies. We found 64 mothers with multifetal pregnancy reduction who delivered twins during 1989–1997; 64 gestational age-matched non-reduced twin pregnancies served as controls. The following neonatal variables were examined: major malformations; small birth weight for gestational age; and neonatal morbidities including respiratory distress syndrome, apnea, pneumothorax, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, hyperbilirubinemia, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, seizures, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, ventriculomegaly, and hydrocephalus. In addition, we evaluated several neonatal interventions (surfactant replacement, mechanical ventilation, phototherapy, total parenteral nutrition), and some laboratory abnormalities (thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia, and hypoglycemia), duration of hospitalization, and neonatal mortality.

Results: Gestational and labor variables were not significantly different between multifetal pregnancies reduced to twins and non-reduced twin pregnancies. The neonatal morbidity and mortality were not significantly different between twin neonates from multifetal pregnancy reduction and non-reduced control twins.

Conclusions: Multifetal pregnancy reduction to twins appears to bear no adverse effect on the intrauterine course of the remaining fetuses or their neonatal course and outcome when born after 28 weeks of gestation.
 

September 2002
Imad R. Makhoul, MD, DSc, Monica Epelman, MD, Imad Kassis, MD, Marcelo Daitzchman, MD and Polo Sujov, MD
August 2002
Tatiana Smolkin, MD, Imad R. Makhoul, MD, DSc and Polo Sujov, MD
February 2002
Imad R. Makhoul, MD, DSc, Polo Sujov, MD, Leon Ardekian, DDS, Imad Kassis, MD, Tatiana Smolkin, MD, Imad Abu-Elnaa'j, DMD, Ada Tamir, DSc and Dov Laufer, DMD

Background: Factors influencing the oral flora of premature infants have not been adequately investigated.

Objective: To investigate the effects of gestational age and of anti-bacterial therapy on the oral flora of premature infants.

Methods: Oral cultures were obtained at age 1 day and age 10 days from 65 premature infants, divided into three groups: a) 24 neonates of 30-34 weeks gestation who did not receive ABT, b) 23 neonates of 30-34 weeks gestation who received ABT, and c) 18 neonates < 30 weeks gestation who received ABT.

Results: Oral bacterial colonization increased from day 1 to day 10 of life. In 24-34 week neonates, gestational age did not affect early bacteremia or oral colonization at birth. Neither gestational age nor ABT affected late bacteremia or oral colonization at day 10. In 30-34 week neonates with ABT, the oral flora consisted mainly of non-Escherichia coli gram-negative bacteria, whereas those who did not receive ABT grew mainly alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli in neonates < 30 weeks who received ABT the oral flora were mainly coagulase-negative staphylococci. Oral colonization with anearobes was zero and colonization with fungi was minimal.

Conclusions: Acquistion of oral bacteria rose from day 1 to day 10 of life, regardless of gestational life or ABT. On day 10 of life, the spectrum of oral bacterial flora changed following ABT and consisted mainly of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and non E. coli garm-negative bacteria. Oral colonization showed few fungi but no anaerobes. These microbiologic observations merit attention when empirical anti-microbial therapy is considered in premature infants suspected or having late-onset sepsis.

March 2001
Imad R. Makhoul, MD DSc, Osnat Zmora, MD, Ada Tamir, DSc, Eli Shahar, MD and Polo Sujov, MD

Background: Congenital subependymal pseudocysts are incidental findings that are found in 05-5.2% of neonates during postmortem examination or head ultrasonography. In our institution we detected 10 neonates with CSEPC.

Objective: To investigate associated etiological factors, morphologic characteristics and outcome of CSEPC.

Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of the literature on CSEPC (1967-98), including our 10 cases.

Results: A total of 256 cases of CSEPC were analyzed. Ultrasound diagnosed 77.6% of CSEPC 48.8% were bilateral and 53.4% were located in the caudothalamic groove or head of caudate nucleus. Altogether, 93.5% resolved during 1-12 months of ultrasonographic follow-up. Compared to the general neonatal population, the following features were more prevalent in the CSEPC population: prematurity, maternal vaginal bleeding, preeclamptic toxemia, intrauterine growth restriction, asphyxia, fetal cytomegalovirus and rubella infec­tions, congenital malformations, chromosomal aberrations, infant mortality, and neurodevelopmental handicap. The risk for neurodevelopmental handicap was significantly higher when CSEPC were associated with fetal infections, IUGR, malformations and chromosomal aberrations, or persistence of CSEPC during follow-up. CSEPC infants without any of these four conditions had a low risk for neurodevelopmental handi­cap.

Conclusions: CSEPC are morphologic features of various underlying conditions encountered in the fetus. Association of CSEPC with IUGR, fetal infections, malformations and chromosomal aberrations or persistence of CSEPC indicates a higher risk for future neurodevelopmental handicaps, probably because of the deleterious effects on the fetal brain that are inherent in these conditions. A favorable outcome is expected in the absence of these risk factors.
 

May 2000
Josef Ben-Ari MD, Imad R. Makhoul MD DSc, Raymond J. Dorio MD, Sue Buckley MSc,David Warburton MD and Sharyn M. Walker

Background: Exposure of newborn animals to high concentrations of oxygen leads to diffuse alveolar damage similar to that seen in bronchopulmonary dysplasia in human infants. Therefore, neonatal rats are a suitable practical model of hyperoxic lung damage in human infants.

Objective: To determine the involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in lung injury in neonatal rats exposed to 100% O2 concentration.

Methods: A randomized controlled study was designed in which litters of term Sprague-Dawley rat pups were assigned to experimental or control groups. The pups in the experimental group were placed in 100% O2 from birth for 9 days, while the control pups were placed in room air. Twelve to 15 pups from each group were sacrificed on day 1, 3, 6, 9 and 13 after birth for bronchoalveolar lavage collection and lung histologic study. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assayed for TNFα and IL-6.

Results: Newborn rats exposed to 100% O2 for the first 9 days of life showed severe pulmonary edema and hypercellularity on days 1 and 3, which then improved to nearly complete resolution on days 6 and 9. Pulmonary TNFα was produced early on O2 exposure (day 3) and pulmonary IL-6 later (days 6 and 9).

Conclusions: Hyperoxia induces sequential production of pulmonary TNFα and IL-6, which corresponds to the severity of the pathological findings and the known inflammatory and anti-inflammatory role of these cytokines.

________________________________

 

TNFα= tumor necrosis factor-alpha

IL-6= interleukin-6

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