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November 2022
Raymond Farah MD, Nicola Makhoul MD, Alexander Samohvalov MD, William Nseir MD

Background: An increased serum glucose level is a common finding among patients admitted to hospital with acute illness, including the intensive care unit (ICU), even without a history of previous diabetes mellitus (DM). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is not only a diagnostic tool for DM but may also has prognostic value for diabetic and non-diabetic populations.

Objectives: To assess the relationship between HbA1c level on admission and clinical outcome among patients admitted to the ICU due to cardiopulmonary disorders with hyperglycemia.

Methods: Patients consecutively admitted to the ICU due to cardiopulmonary disorders who presented with hyperglycemia at admission were evaluated during a 6-month period. HbA1c and serum glucose levels were tested on admission and during the first 24–48 hours of hospitalization. Patients were divided according to HbA1c and compared in term of demographics. We evaluated the effect of HbA1c levels at admission on the clinical outcomes.

Results: Of patients with cardiopulmonary disorders who presented with hyperglycemia at admission to the ICU, 73 had HbA1c levels ≥ 6%, 92 had HbA1c levels < 6%: 63/165 (38.2%) known as diabetic patients. The 30-day all-cause mortality was higher in the group with high HbA1c levels; 38/73 vs. 32/98 (P = 0.02). Increased length of stay in the ICU and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score were associated with HbA1c ≥ 6% (P < 0.022 and P < 0.026), respectively

Conclusions: HbA1c ≥ 6% has an important clinical prognostic value among diabetic and non-diabetic patients with cardiopulmonary disorders and hyperglycemia.

July 2020
Michal Levmore-Tamir MD, Giora Weiser MD, Elihay Berliner MD, Matityahu Erlichman MD, Carmit Avnon Ziv MD, Floris Levy-Khademi MD

Background: Stress hyperglycemia (SH) is a common finding in patients in pediatric emergency departments (PED) and has been related to increased morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To assess the incidence of SH among children visiting the PED. To identify which diseases predispose patients to SH and whether they indicate a worse outcome.

Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from the medical records of all children aged 0–18 years who visited the PED during the years 2010–2014 and who had a glucose level of ≥ 150 mg/dl. Data collected included age, gender, weight, blood glucose level, presence or absence of a pre-existing or a new diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and previous treatment with medications affecting blood glucose levels or with intravenous fluids containing dextrose. Data were collected regarding hospitalization, duration of hospitalization, discharge diagnosis, and survival status.

Results: The study population included 1245 children with SH, which comprised 2.6% of all patients whose blood glucose level was measured in the PED during the study period. The mean age of children with SH was 49 months; 709 (56.9%) were male. The mean blood glucose level was 184 mg/dl. The rate of hospitalization was 57.8%. The mean duration of hospital stay was 5.6 days and mortality rate was 0.96%. The majority were diagnosed with a respiratory illness.

Conclusions: SH is a common phenomenon among children evaluated in the PED and is associated with a high incidence of hospitalization. It may serve as an additional clinical indicator of disease severity.

July 2015
Andreas E. Buchs MD, Michal Braverman MD and Micha J. Rapoport MD

Background: Admission glucose levels correlate with clinical outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) hospitalized in general medicine wards. 

Objective: To investigate whether in-hospital hyperglycemia alone and after adjustment for age, gender and lipidemia correlates with in- and out-of-hospital mortality.

Methods: Capillary glucose, serum lipids and diagnoses at discharge among patients with T2DM hospitalized in the general medical wards of our hospital were documented. Correlation with in- and out-of-hospital mortality was determined through uni- and multivariate analyses. 

Results: Of the 4607 patients included in the study 22% died while hospitalized. From a median of five capillary glucose tests obtained per patient, average capillary glucose level was significantly lower in those who survived than in those who died (174 ± 64 vs. 180 ± 65 mg/dl, P = 0.005). Overall, blood cholesterol was higher in those who survived than in those who died (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis, however, including age, gender, lipidemia and glycemia, showed that only age and male gender correlated with mortality.

Conclusions: Hyperglycemia was associated with increased in- and out-of-hospital mortality on univariate analysis. However, it was not an independent risk factor when corrected for age, gender and hyperlipidemia. 

 

June 2015
Idit F. Liberty MD, Naim Abu Freha MD, Yael Baumfeld MD, Shlomi Codish MD MPH, Fransisc Schlaeffer MD and Victor Novack MD PhD

Abstract

Background: The impact of admission glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) on hospital outcome is controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between admission glucose and HbA1c levels and mortality 1 year after hospitalization in the internal medicine ward.

Methods: HbA1c level of consecutive patients was measured during the first 24 hours of admission to the internal medicine ward and divided at the cutoff point of 6.5%. Three groups of patients were prospectively identified: patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM), patients with glucose > 140 mg/dl (hyperglycemia) on admission and no known diabetes (H), and patients without diabetes or hyperglycemia (NDM). The primary end-point was 1 year all-cause mortality.

Results: A total of 1024 patients were enrolled, 592 (57.8%) belonged to the DM group, 119 (11.6%) to the H group and 313 (30.6%) to the NDM group. At 1 year, death occurred in 70 (11.9%) in the DM group, 12 (10.0%) in the H group and 15 (4.8%) in the NDM group (P = 0.002). Elevated admission glucose levels did not influence outcome in any of the groups. HbA1c levels were similar for survivors and non-survivors (P = 0.60). Within-group multivariate analysis adjusted for comorbidities and age showed that in the H group HbA1C levels of 6.5% or above were associated with increased mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR) 8.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.93–35.21). In the DM group, HbA1c levels below 6.5% were associated with increased mortality risk (HR = 2.05, 95%CI 1.25–3.36).

Conclusions: Glucose levels upon admission did not affect mortality. However, HbA1c levels below 6.5% had opposite effects on 1 year mortality in diabetes patients and patients with hyperglycemia.

August 2010
March 2007
R. Farah, A. Samokhvalov, F. Zviebel and N. Makhou

Background: Hyperglycemia is common among patients admitted to intensive care units, and carries the risk for complications and prolonged ICU[1] stay. With intensive insulin control of blood glucose, morbidity and mortality can be reduced.

Objectives: To determine whether intensive or conventional insulin control of blood glucose in hyperglycemic ICU patients correlated with the prognosis.

Methods: Following admission to the ICU, hyperglycemic patients were randomly assigned to a group treated intensively with insulin targeting glucose at 110–140 mg/dl, or to a conventional insulin therapy group, where glucose, upon exceeding 200 mg/dl, was controlled at 140–200 mg/dl. Rates of morbidity and mortality, hypoglycemic episodes, and insulin dosage were compared.

Results: In the 41 patients treated intensively with insulin the glucose level was 142 ± 14 mg/dl, as compared to 174 ± 20 mg/dl in the 48 patients on conventional insulin treatment. Both groups were similar in age, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score. Morbidity was also similar, except for increased vascular damage in the conventional treatment group and slightly shorter ICU stay in the intensive therapy group. Both groups had similar in-ICU, in-hospital, and 28 day mortalities, and similar rates of hypoglycemic episodes. The daily dosage of insulin was significantly higher with the conventional treatment (P = 0.004).

Conclusions: Intensive insulin treatment did not affect the mortality or morbidity rates in ICU patients. The increased insulin dosage of conventional insulin treatment was attributable to the group's higher prevalence of diabetes. Future studies should address this bias and determine the optimal glucose target.  

 






[1] ICU = intensive care unit


November 2003
February 2003
M. Khamaisi, J. Wainstein, N. Hancu, Z. Milicevic and I. Raz

Patients with diabetes and/or insulin resistance syndrome are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The UKPDS raised a great debate about the relative importance of hyperglycemia in the development of cardiovascular disease. Recently, several epidemiologic studies have suggested that high postprandial blood glucose levels are associated with a significant risk for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as a grave prognosis for these patients during acute coronary events. In addition, a number of reports reinforce the thesis that postprandial hyperglycemia is a risk factor for mortality. Our review summarizes the current knowledge on the relation between blood glucose, insulin levels, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, relating these data to the new World Health Organization and American Diabetes Association classification of disturbed glucose metabolism.

February 2001
Carlos Alberto Aguilar-Salinas, MD, Onix Arita Melzer, MD, Leobardo Sauque Reyna, MD, Angelina Lopez, BSc, Ma Luisa Velasco Perez, RN, Luz E. Guillen, BSc, Francisco Javier Gomez Perez, MD and Juan A. Rull Rodrigo, MD

Background: Information is lacking on the effects of hormone replacement therapy in women with diabetes, especially during moderate chronic hyperglycemia.

Objectives: To study the effects of HRT on the lipid profile and the low density lipoprotein subclass distribution in women with type 2 diabetes under satisfactory and non-satisfactory glycemic control.

Methods: Fifty-four postmenopausal women after a 6 week run-in diet were randomized to receive either placebo(HbAlc <8%, n=13 HbAlc >8%, n=17) or HRT (HbAlc<8%, n=11 HbAlc >8%, n=13) for 12 weeks. HRT consisted of cyclical conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg/day plus medrogestone 5 mg/day. At the beginning and at the end of each treatment period the LDL subclass distribution was estimated by density gradient ultracentrifugation.

Results: At the baseline and during the study, the HbAlc level was significantly higher in hyperglycemic patients than in the near-normoglycemic controls (baseline 10.2±2.9 vs. 6.5±0.7%, P<0.01). They showed a trend for higher total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and lower high density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared to near-normoglycemic con­trols, as well as significantly higher triglyceride concentrations in very low density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein and LDL-1 particles and cholesterol content in LDL-1 and -2 particles. HRT decreased LDL-cholesterol in both groups. In the normoglycemic patients a small increase in HbAlc was observed (6.5±0.7 vs. 7.4+1%, P=004). In all cases, HRT did not modify the proportion of LDL represented by denser LDLs.

Conclusions: HRT did not modify the LDL subclass distribution, even in the presence of moderate chronic hyperglycemia in women with type 2 diabetes.

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