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עמוד בית
Tue, 04.10.22

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April 2013
T. Silberstein, A. Burg, J. Blumenfeld, B. Sheizaf, T. Tzur and O. Saphier
 Background: Breast milk is well established as the ideal source of nutrition for infants. Mature human breast milk generally contains 3.5–4.5% lipids comprising mostly triacylglycerols. In general, the fat composition of maternal human milk in developing countries shows higher levels of saturated fats, reflecting diets rich in carbohydrates.

Objectives: To determine the profile of unsaturated fatty acids in the breast milk of two populations in southern Israel, Jewish and rural tent-dwelling Bedouin women.

Methods: This study involved 48 lactating Israeli mothers, 29 Jewish and 19 Bedouin (16–20 weeks postpartum), whose full-term infants were fed exclusively with breast milk. Total milk lipid extracts were transmethylated and analyzed by using an improved gas chromatographic method.

Results: The breast milk of the Bedouin women contained significantly higher levels of total major saturated fatty acids, lauric acid and palmitic acid (45.2 ± 4.7% vs. 41.0 ± 5.6%, P = 0.005; 5.2 ± 2.1 vs. 6.8 ± 2.0%, P = 0.03; and 22.7 ± 2.4 vs. 20.6 ± 3.8%, P = 0.02) respectively. No difference was found in the myristic acid level between the groups. The level of stearic acid was significantly higher in the Jewish group compared to the Bedouin group (5.7 ± 1.1 vs. 5.1 ± 1.1%, P = 0.04). There was a linear correlation between the levels of C14:0 and C12:0 in the Bedouin and Jewish groups respectively (R = 0.87, R = 0.82, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Higher levels of saturated fatty acids were measured in the breast milk of Bedouin women, an economically weaker population. The results emphasize the importance of diet among lactating women and its influence on milk quality. 

January 2012
Ronit Lubetzky, MD, Galit Zaidenberg-Israeli, MD, Francis B. Mimouni, MD, Shaul Dollberg, MD, Eyal Shimoni, PhD, Yael Ungar, PhD and Dror Mandel, MD

Background: Human milk produced during prolonged lactation (> 1 year) is extraordinarily rich in fat and has a higher energy content than human milk produced during short lactation.

Objectives: To estimate the fatty acid (FA) profile of human milk and to test the hypothesis that the proportion of C12 and C14 (two dietary saturated FA known to most promote hypercholesterolemia) in human milk during prolonged lactation is similar to that in short lactation.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 30 mothers of term infants lactating for more than 1 year as compared with 25 mothers of full-term infants who lactated for 2–6 months. Milk was collected by manual expression in mid-breastfeeding.

Results: The two groups did not differ in maternal height, weight, body mass index, diet, infant birth weight and gestational age, but mothers in the prolonged lactation group were significantly older. There was a significant correlation between lactation duration and C12 or C14. The percentage of all FA combined (except for C12 and C14) decreased significantly over time. In contrast, C12:0 and C14:0 combined increased significantly during lactation (R2 = 10.0%, P < 0.03).

Conclusions: Women who lactated for more than 1 year had higher C12 and C14 FA percentages in their milk than women who lactated for 2–6 months.

November 2010
S. Hudara, F. Mimouni, Y. Rachman, B. Dayan, A. Silbermintz and D. Turner

Background: Optimil® is an infant formula, manufactured in Israel and introduced to the market in May 2008.

Objectives: To assess, for the first time, the effect of this formula on infant growth.

Method: The study group comprised 52 infants who for the first 6 months of life consumed Optimil, which constituted at least 25% of their total daily intake. Anthropometric data were collected from the records of the well-baby clinics. Weight, length and head circumference at baseline and 3 months thereafter were converted to gender and age-matched standard deviation Z-scores. As an exploratory uncontrolled analysis, questionnaires were sent to the caregivers to assess satisfaction with the formula and to note the rate of constipation, irritability and vomiting as well as apparent palatability.

Results: The baseline Z-scores of all three parameters were below zero but increased significantly after 3 months (-0.2 ± 0.88 to 0.12 ± 0.88, P = 0.013 for weight; -0.44 ± 0.87 to 0.10 ± 0.72, P < 0.001 for length; and -0.58 ± 0.78 to -0.1 ± 0.76, P < 0.001 for head circumference). There was a significant dose-response effect of the formula with weight gain. The formula was generally well accepted, with 8% constipation, 8% vomiting and 6% significant irritability.

Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that infants consuming Optimil under age 6 months have adequate growth. Nonetheless, breastfeeding during this period should be preferred in almost all cases.

August 2005
S. Berger-Achituv, T. Shohat and B-Z. Garty
 Background: The rate of breast-feeding in Israel has increased over the last two decades but is still lower than rates in other developed countries that have taken an active role in promoting breast-feeding.

Objective: To determine breast-feeding patterns and the association between sociodemographic characteristics and breast-feeding in the Tel Aviv district.

Methods: The mothers of infants aged 2, 4, 6 and 12 months, attending 59 well-baby clinics in the Tel Aviv district, were interviewed by telephone. Singleton infants who weighed less than 2,000 g and multiple-gestation infants were excluded from the study. The questions covered background data, sociodemographic characteristics of the family, and breast-feeding practices. Stepwise logistic regression was used to analyze the association between breast-feeding and various sociodemographic characteristics.

Results: Altogether, 78.5% of the mothers (1,307/1,665) initiated breast-feeding. The rate of breast-feeding at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months was 55.8, 36.8, 29.9 and 11.8%, respectively. Only 35.8% of the infants at 2 months and 11.2% at 6 months were exclusively breast-fed. The mean duration of breast-feeding was 5.2 ± 0.2 months. Grand multiparas (≥5 children) had a significantly higher rate of breast-feeding than women with one to four children (P < 0.001). More likely to breast-feed for 2 weeks or longer were women married to Yeshiva students (odds ratio = 5.3), women with ≥13 years education (OR[1] = 2.1), and women on maternity leave (OR = 1.6). The predictors for breast-feeding for 6 months or longer were similar.

Conclusions: Although the rate of breast-feeding initiation in central Israel was 78.5%, only 29.9% of the mothers continue to breast-feed for 6 months. Already at a young age, an appreciable number of breast-fed infants receive infant formula. Breast-feeding promotion should focus on less educated women, homemakers, and families with one to four children.


 



[1] OR = odds ratio


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